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Guest Editorial

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):030201-030201-2. doi:10.1115/1.4040307.
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This is the first special issue based on selected papers presented at the 37th ASME Computers and Information in Engineering (CIE) conference held in Cleveland, OH, Aug. 6–9, 2017. The CIE conference is held annually in conjunction with the International Design Engineering Technical Conferences (IDETC). The ASME CIE conference is the flagship conference of the ASME's CIE division. This special issue contains 11 papers selected from 95 papers presented at the conference on diverse topics related to the Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering (JCISE). The topics range from computational methods to human–computer interactions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):031001-031001-12. doi:10.1115/1.4039311.

In order to account and compensate for the dissipative processes contributing to the aging of cathodic surfaces protected by impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems, it is necessary to develop the proper modeling and numerical infrastructure that can predict aging associated with quantities affecting the controller of these systems. In the present work, we describe various approaches for developing cathodic surface aging models (CSAMs) based on both data-driven and first principles-based methodologies. A computational ICCP framework is implemented in a manner that enables the simulation of the effects of cathodic aging in a manner that allows the utilization of various CSAMs that affect the relevant potentiodynamic polarization curves of the cathodic materials. An application of this framework demonstrates the capabilities of this system. We introduce a data-driven CSAM based on a loft-surface approximation, and in response to the limitations of this approach, we also formulate a first principles-based multiphysics and thermodynamic theory for aging. Furthermore, we discuss the design of a systematic experimental task for validating and calibrating this theory in the near future.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):031002-031002-9. doi:10.1115/1.4039312.

The precise control of mass and energy deposition associated with additive manufacturing (AM) processes enables the topological specification and realization of how space can be filled by material in multiple scales. Consequently, AM can be pursued in a manner that is optimized such that fabricated objects can best realize performance specifications. In the present work, we propose a computational multiscale method that utilizes the unique meso-scale structuring capabilities of implicit slicers for AM, in conjunction with existing topology optimization (TO) tools for the macro-scale, in order to generate structurally optimized components. The use of this method is demonstrated on two example objects including a load bearing bracket and a hand tool. This paper also includes discussion concerning the applications of this methodology, its current limitations, a recasting of the AM digital thread, and the future work required to enable its widespread use.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):031003-031003-9. doi:10.1115/1.4039473.

For the first time, Tolerance-Maps (T-Maps) are constructed to model composite positional tolerancing applied to patterns (arrays) of features. The T-Map for a feature is a range (codomain) of points obtained by mapping all the variational possibilities (domain) of a feature within its tolerance zone to a hypothetical Euclidean point space. T-Maps have already been developed for tolerances applied to single features, such as to a simple axis (line), a plane, and a cylinder, but not for the special methods available for tolerancing patterns of features. In this paper, the different pattern tolerancing methods listed in the standards produce distinctions in geometric shape, proportions, and/or dimensions of a T-Map. The T-Map geometry is different when tolerances are specified with composite position tolerancing rather than with two-single-segment control frames. Additional changes to geometry occur when material modifiers are also specified. Two levels of T-Maps are proposed for a pattern of features. One is at the assembly level to ensure the assembly of an engaging pattern of pins and holes, such as the array of pins on an integrated circuit, which are to be inserted into a base. The second is at the part level to model the variations between the two parts that contain the engaging patterns. The assembly-level T-Maps apply to any number of engaging pin/hole features arranged in any pattern: linear, circular, rectangular, or irregular. In this paper, the part-level T-Map is restricted to linear patterns. The different specifications are also compared with a statistical analysis of misalignment for an assembly with a pattern of pins and holes.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):031004-031004-11. doi:10.1115/1.4039061.

This paper presents a framework to build hybrid cells that support safe and efficient human–robot collaboration during assembly operations. Our approach allows asynchronous collaborations between human and robot. The human retrieves parts from a bin and places them in the robot's workspace, while the robot picks up the placed parts and assembles them into the product. We present the design details of the overall framework comprising three modules—plan generation, system state monitoring, and contingency handling. We describe system state monitoring and present a characterization of the part tracking algorithm. We report results from human–robot collaboration experiments using a KUKA robot and a three-dimensional (3D)-printed mockup of a simplified jet-engine assembly to illustrate our approach.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):031005-031005-12. doi:10.1115/1.4039194.

Capturing the strategy followed during a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection planning session has been an extremely challenging issue due to the time-consuming nature of traditional methods, such as interviewing experts and technical documents data mining. This paper presents a methodology demonstrating how a motion capture-based system can facilitate direct and nonintrusive CMM operator logging for capturing planning strategies and representing in knowledge formats. With the use of recorded motion data, embedded knowledge and expertise can be captured automatically and formalized in various formats such as motion trajectory graphs, inspection plans, integrated definition (IDEF) model diagrams, and other representations. Additionally, a part program can be generated for driving a CMM to execute component measurement. The system's outputs can be used to help understand how a CMM inspection strategy is planned, as well as training aids for inexperienced operators and the rapid generation of part programs.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):031006-031006-11. doi:10.1115/1.4039472.

Modern color and depth (RGB-D) sensing systems are capable of reconstructing convincing virtual representations of real world environments. These virtual reconstructions can be used as the foundation for virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality environments due to their high-quality visualizations. However, a main limitation of modern virtual reconstruction methods is the time it takes to incorporate new data and update the virtual reconstruction. This delay prevents the reconstruction from accurately rendering dynamic objects or portions of the environment (like an engineer performing an inspection of a machinery or laboratory space). The authors propose a multisensor method to dynamically capture objects in an indoor environment. The method automatically aligns the sensors using modern image homography techniques, leverages graphics processing units (GPUs) to process the large number of independent RGB-D data points, and renders them in real time. Incorporating and aligning multiple sensors allows a larger area to be captured from multiple angles, providing a more complete virtual representation of the physical space. Performing processing on GPU's leverages the large number of processing cores available to minimize the delay between data capture and rendering. A case study using commodity RGB-D sensors, computing hardware, and standard transmission control protocol internet connections is presented to demonstrate the viability of the proposed method.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):031007-031007-11. doi:10.1115/1.4039313.

Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) allow information provision through visual, auditory, and haptic signals to achieve multidimensional goals of mobility. However, processing information from ADAS requires operating expenses of mental workload that drivers incur from their limited attentional resources. The change in driving condition can modulate drivers' workload and potentially impair drivers' interaction with ADAS. This paper shows how the measure of cardiac activity (heart rate and the indexes of autonomic nervous system (ANS)) could discriminate the influence of different driving conditions on drivers' workload associated with attentional resources engaged while driving with ADAS. Fourteen drivers performed a car-following task with visual ADAS in a simulated driving. Drivers' workload was manipulated in two driving conditions: one in monotonous condition (constant speed) and another in more active condition (variable speed). Results showed that drivers' workload was similarly affected, but the amount of attentional resources allocation was slightly distinct between both conditions. The analysis of main effect of time demonstrated that drivers' workload increased over time without the alterations in autonomic indexes regardless of driving condition. However, the main effect of driving condition produced a higher level of sympathetic activation on variable speed driving compared to driving with constant speed. Variable speed driving requires more adjustment of steering wheel movement (SWM) to maintain lane-keeping performance, which led to higher level of task involvement and increased task engagement. The proposed measures appear promising to help designing new adaptive working modalities for ADAS on the account of variation in driving condition.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):031008-031008-8. doi:10.1115/1.4039583.

This paper addresses the combinatorial characterizations of the optimality conditions for constrained least-squares fitting of circles, cylinders, and spheres to a set of input points. It is shown that the necessary condition for optimization requires contacting at least two input points. It is also shown that there exist cases where the optimal condition is achieved while contacting only two input points. These problems arise in digital manufacturing, where one is confronted with the task of processing a (potentially large) number of points with three-dimensional coordinates to establish datums on manufactured parts. The optimality conditions reported in this paper provide the necessary conditions to verify if a candidate solution is feasible, and to design new algorithms to compute globally optimal solutions.

Topics: Cylinders , Fittings
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):031009-031009-14. doi:10.1115/1.4039553.

Manufacturing capability (MC) analysis is a necessary step in the early stages of supply chain formation. In the contract manufacturing industry, companies often advertise their capabilities and services in an unstructured format on the company website. The unstructured capability data usually portray a realistic view of the services a supplier can offer. If parsed and analyzed properly, unstructured capability data can be used effectively for initial screening and characterization of manufacturing suppliers specially when dealing with a large pool of suppliers. This work proposes a novel framework for capability-based supplier classification that relies on the unstructured capability narratives available on the suppliers' websites. Four document classification algorithms, namely, support vector machine (SVM ), Naïve Bayes, random forest, and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) are used as the text classification techniques. One of the innovative aspects of this work is incorporating a thesaurus-guided method for feature selection and tokenization of capability data. The thesaurus contains the formal and informal vocabulary used in the contract machining industry for advertising manufacturing capabilities. A web-based tool is developed for the generation of the concept vector model associated with each capability narrative and extraction of features from the input documents. The proposed supplier classification framework is validated experimentally through forming two capability classes, namely, heavy component machining and difficult and complex machining, based on real capability data. It was concluded that thesaurus-guided method improves the precision of the classification process.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):031010-031010-10. doi:10.1115/1.4039474.

Integrated vehicle simulation models are being increasingly used to improve engineering efficiency and reduce the number of real-world prototypes needed to understand vehicle attributes and subsystem interactions. Each domain within the vehicle must be represented by its own model developed with the appropriate operating ranges, behaviors, fidelity, and interfaces needed to interact appropriately with other domains in the vehicle. Planning and managing the development of these models across a large, multidisciplinary group of engineers can be a significant effort. In particular, carefully managing each model's interfaces is crucial to enabling the entire process; missing or inappropriately used signals can cause significant issues when many separate domain models are integrated into a single simulation. To help system engineers better manage these interfaces across a broad variety of applications, a SysML-based modeling approach is proposed to describe these models and their interfaces formally and completely. However, even with a consistent modeling approach, creating and managing interfaces across a large number of domains and applications can be a significant, error-prone task. To reduce the amount of manual modeling work required and help scale the process for complex models, an interface management framework is proposed to help automate the process of importing existing interfaces, routing and visualizing them, and exporting model templates for developers to use when creating new models. By automating this process, it becomes significantly easier to reuse models across simulation architectures (rather than creating new models from scratch) and frees up resources to create more accurate simulations throughout a system's design.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2018;18(3):034501-034501-12. doi:10.1115/1.4039335.

Cosmetic mask is a popular skincare product widely accepted by the youth and female. Most cosmetic masks in the current market offer very few sizes to choose from, thus producing misfit masks with reduced wearing comfort and skincare functionality. This paper describes how to realize customized design of cosmetic masks using three-dimensional (3D) parametric face models derived from a large amount of scanned facial data. The parametric models approximate individual faces using a nonlinear regression model controlled by a set of facial parameters easy to be measured. They serve as effective reference geometry to conduct 3D mask design. A prototyping mask design system implementing the parametric modeling method demonstrates the customized design process. The system allows the user to construct the mask shape directly on 3D meshes of a face model by specifying inner and outer boundary curves. An automatic flattening function unfolds the trimmed meshes into a two-dimensional (2D) pattern with a reduced shape distortion. This research enhances the practical value of large-scale anthropometric data by realizing human centric design customization using cosmetic facial mask as an example.

Topics: Design , Geometry , Shapes , Modeling
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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