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Research Papers

Servo-Control Applied to the Parameters of the Laser Hardening Process for a Regular Case Depth of 4340 Steel Cylindrical Specimen

[+] Author and Article Information
Rachid Fakir

Department of Mathematics, Computer Science
and Engineering,
Université du Québec à Rimouski,
300, allée des Ursulines,
Rimouski, QC G5 L 3A1, Canada
e-mail: Rachid.Fakir@uqar.ca

Noureddine Barka

Department of Mathematics, Computer Science
and Engineering,
Université du Québec à Rimouski,
300, allée des Ursulines,
Rimouski, QC G5 L 3A1, Canada
e-mail: Noureddine_Barka@uqar.ca

Jean Brousseau

Department of Mathematics, Computer Science
and Engineering,
Université du Québec à Rimouski,
300, allée des Ursulines,
Rimouski, QC G5 L 3A1, Canada
e-mail: Jean_Brousseau@uqar.ca

Contributed by the Computers and Information Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 15, 2018; final manuscript received February 13, 2019; published online March 18, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Mahesh Mani.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 19(3), 031007 (Mar 18, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: JCISE-18-1248; doi: 10.1115/1.4042918 History: Received September 15, 2018; Revised February 13, 2019

This paper presents a numerical model able to control the temperature distribution along a 4340 steel cylinder heat-treated with laser. The numerical model developed using the numerical finite element method (FEM) was based on a study of surface temperature variation and the adjustment of this temperature by a control of the heat treatment laser power. The proposed analytical approach was built gradually by (i) the development of a numerical model of laser heat treatment of the cylindrical workpiece, (ii) an analysis of the results of simulations and experimental tests, (iii) development of a laser power adjustment approach, and (iv) proposal of a laser power control predictor using neural networks. This approach was made possible by highlighting the influence of the fixed (nonvariable) parameters of the laser heat treatment on the case depth and has shown that it is possible by controlling the laser parameters to homogenize the distribution of the maximum temperature reached on the surface for a uniform case depth. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach lead to a reliable and accurate model able to guarantee a uniform surface temperature and a regular case depth for a cylindrical workpiece of a length of 50 mm and with a diameter of between 16 and 22 mm.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Chemical composition of AISI-4340 steel and (b) specific heat and thermal conductivity versus temperature

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup and (b) variation of θ according to the laser power, the scanning speed, the rotation speed, and the diameter of the cylinder

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Fig. 3

(a) comsol mesh visualization and (b) temperature versus number of mesh elements for P = 2000 W, SS = 4.5 mm/s, Ω = 5000 rpm, and D = 20 mm

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Fig. 4

Temperature curves for P = 2000 W, SS = 4.5 mm/s, Ω = 5000 rpm and D = 20 mm: (a) position versus laser power, (b) position versus scanning speed, (c) position versus diameter, and (d) position versus rotation speed

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Fig. 5

(a) Experimental setup. For fixed parameters: P = 2000 W, SS = 4.5 mm/s, Ω = 5000-rpm and D = 16 mm—(b) temperature and case depth versus axis of the cylinder, and (c) temperature and hardness versus depth.

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Fig. 6

(a) Temperature and laser power versus axis of the cylinder for T1, T6 and T16, and (b) case depth and laser power versus axis of the cylinder for T6

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Fig. 7

Main effects plot: (a) slope of the curve, (b) temperature of the surface, and (c) case depth

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Fig. 8

Contour plot: (a) slope of the curve (W/mm), (b) temperature of the surface (°C), and (c) case depth (μm)

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Fig. 9

(a) ANN model architecture and (b) flowchart of training process of Levenberg Marquardt backpropagation

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Fig. 10

(a) Measured versus predicted Γ, (b) measured versus predicted Ts, (c) measured versus predicted Cd, and (d) mean squared error versus epochs

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Fig. 11

Microscopic visualization: (a) for the unhardened zone and (b) for the hardened zone

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