Research Papers

Reverse Engineering Using Close Range Photogrammetry for Additive Manufactured Reproduction of Egyptian Artifacts and Other Objets d'art2

[+] Author and Article Information
John Kaufman

Engineering Department,
Lancaster University,
Lancashire LA1 4YW, UK
e-mail: johnkfm@gmail.com

Morag Clement

Kendal Museum,
Station Road,
Kendal, Cumbria LA9 6BT, UK
e-mail: morag.clement@kendal.ac.uk

Allan EW Rennie

Engineering Department,
Lancaster University,
Lancashire LA1 4YW, UK
e-mail: a.rennie@lancaster.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

2Accepted and presented at ASME 2014 12th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis (ESDA1014-20304), Copenhagen, Denmark, June 25-27, 2014.

Contributed by the Computers and Information Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 18, 2014; final manuscript received October 25, 2014; published online January 12, 2015. Editor: Bahram Ravani.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 15(1), 011006 (Mar 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: JCISE-14-1238; doi: 10.1115/1.4028960 History: Received July 18, 2014; Revised October 25, 2014; Online January 12, 2015

Photogrammetry has been in use for over 150 years. This research considers how digital image capture using a medium range Nikon digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera, can be transformed into 3D virtual spatial images, and together with additive manufacturing (AM) technology, geometric representations of the original artifact can be fabricated. The research has focused on the use of photogrammetry as opposed to laser scanning (LS), investigating the shift from LS use to a single DSLR camera exclusively. The basic photogrammetry equipment required is discussed, with the main objective being simplicity of execution for eventual realization of physical products. As the processing power of computers has increased and become widely available, at affordable prices, software programs have improved, so it is now possible to digitally combine multiview photographs, taken from 360 deg, into 3D virtual representational images. This has now led to the possibility of 3D images being created without LS intervention. Two methods of digital data capture are employed and discussed, in acquiring up to 150 digital data images, taken from different angles using a single DSLR camera together with the specific operating conditions in which to photograph the objects. Two case studies are documented, the first a modern clay sculpture, while the second, involves two 3000 year old Egyptian clay artifacts. All and the objects were recreated using AM technology. It has been shown that with the use of a standard DSLR camera and computer software, 2D images can be converted into 3D virtual video replicas as well as solid, geometric representation of the originals.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zhang, M., 2010, The World's First Digital Camera, PetaPixel, San Francisco, CA.
Viswanatha, V., Patil, N. B., and Pandey, S., 2011, “Computation of Object Parameter Values Based on Reference Object Embedded in Captured Image,” Res. J. Comput. Syst. Eng., 2, pp. 183–191.
Milgram, D. L., 1975, “Computer Methods for Creating Photomosaics,”IEEE Trans. Comput., 100, pp. 1113–1119. [CrossRef]
Szeliski, R., 2006, “Image Alignment and Stitching: A Tutorial1,” Microsoft Corporation, Redmond,WA, Report No. 980522006.
Adobe, 2012, PhotoShop Elements, Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA.
West, A., 2010, 20 Years of Adobe Photoshop, WebDesignerDepot, Vancouver, Canada.
ASPRS, 1934, American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, The Imaging & Geospatial Information Society, Bethesda, MD.
AutoDesk, 2012, 123D Catch, AutoDesk Inc, San Rafael, CA.
AgiSoft, 2006, PhotScan, Agisoft LLC, St Petersburg, Russia.
Netfabb, 2010, Studio Professional 4, netfabb GmbH, Parsberg, Germany.
Barsantia, S. G., Remondino, F., and Visintini, D., 2013, “3D Surveying and Modelling of Archaeological Sites - Some Critical Issues,” ISPRS Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Strasbourg, France, Sept. 2–6.
2014, “Photogrammetry - Current Suites of Software,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photogrammetry
MA Media Centre, 2013, Museums Association, Museums Journal, London.
Nikon Corporation, 2012, Nikon - D3100, Japan.
Sparks, J., 2011, Nikon D3100, The Expanded Guide, Ammonite Press, Lewes, UK.
Wilde, B., 2013, Green Screen, a Guide to Chroma Key Photography, Epik Theme.
Verhoeven, G., 2011, “Taking Computer Vision Aloft–Archaeological 3D Reconstructions From Aerial Photographs With Photoscan,” Archaeol. Prospect., 18, pp. 67–73. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, H. M., Wünsche, B., Delmas, P., and Lutteroth, C., 2012, “3D Models From the Black Box: Investigating the Current State of Image-Based Modeling,” Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computer Graphics, Visualisation and Computer Vision (WSCG 2012), Pilsen, Czech Republic.
Agisoft, 2012, PhotoScan Professional Edition, Agisoft LLC, St Petersberg, Russia.
Brooks, H., Rennie, A., Abram, T., McGovern, J., and Caron, F., 2011, “Variable Fused Deposition Modelling: Analysis of Benefits, Concept Design and Tool Path Generation,” 5th International Conference on Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping, Leiria, Portugal, pp. 511–517.
Steele, K., and Williams, R., 2003, “Reverse Engineering the Greek Comic Mask Using Photographic Three-Dimensional Scanning and Three Dimensional Printing Techniques and Related Seepage Control,” Rapid and Virtual Prototyping and Applications: 4th National Conference, pp. 73–81.
Nicolae, C., Nocerino, E., Menna, F., and Remondino, F., 2014, “Photogrammetry Applied to Problematic Artefacts,” ISPRS-Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., 1, pp. 451–456. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Textured resolution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Point cloud data image

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Multicamera positions around clay head

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Indoor open room setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Light tent setup in Museum workshop

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Alternative method of data capture using light tent and PhotoScan Pro®

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Dark (green) background has been masked out of image

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Typical data flaws

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Processes digital image ready to be cleaned

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Digital process using 123D Catch® from image capture to AM geometric representation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Wire mesh to be cleaned

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Wire mesh to be cleaned

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Original clay head

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Point cloud textured digital image



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In