Automatic Building of Structured Geological Models

[+] Author and Article Information
Sylvain Brandel

 Université Louis-Pasteur, LSIIT, Pôle API, Bd Sébastien Brant, F-67412 Illkirch Cedex, Francebrandel@lsiit.u-strasbg.fr

Sébastien Schneider

 Institut Français du Pétrole, DTIMA, 1-4 Avenue de Bois-Préau, F-92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, Francesebastien.schneider

Michel Perrin

 Ecole des Mines de Paris, CGI, 60 Bd St. Michel, F-75272 Paris Cedex 06, Francemichel.perrin@ensmp.fr

Nicolas Guiard

 Ecole des Mines de Paris, CGI, 60 Bd St. Michel, F-75272 Paris Cedex 06, Francenicolas.guidard@esmp.fr

Jean-Français Rainaud

Institut Français du Pétrole, DTIMAj-francois.rainaud@ifp.fr

Pascal Lienhard

 Université de Poitiers, SIC, Bât. SP2MI, Téléport 2, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, BP 30179, F-86960 Futuroscope Cedex, Francelienhardt@sic.sp2mi.univ-poitiers.fr

Yves Bertrand

 Université de Poitiers, SIC, Bât. SP2MI, Téléport 2, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, BP 30179, F-86960 Futuroscope Cedex, Francebertrand@sic.sp2mi.univ-poitiers.fr

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 5(2), 138-148 (Feb 04, 2005) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1884145 History: Received September 03, 2004; Revised February 04, 2005

The present article proposes a method to significantly improve the construction and updating of 3D geological models used for oil and gas exploration. We present a prototype of a “geological pilot” which enables monitoring the automatic building of a 3D model topologically and geologically consistent, on which geological links between objects can easily be visualized. This model can automatically be revised in case of changes in the geometric data or in the interpretation.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Workflow for the building of a reservoir model

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Figure 2

Example of an hydrocarbon reservoir (Waterton field, Alberta). The volumes filled by oil are pictured in grey. (Doc. from the 24th International Geological Congress, 1972)

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Figure 3

Relationships between geology and topology: changes in the geological hypotheses induce in the topology and in the surface identification. (a) Raw data (b) B interrupts A,B is erosional, A is older than, B (c) B stops on A,A is onlap, B is not erosional, A is older than B

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Figure 4

(a) S1 and S2 are two geological surfaces (S1 younger than S2) intersected by a later fault Φ. (b) b1 and b2 are two geological blocks between S1 and S2, which belong to one formation

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Figure 5

POL and TEC surfaces. S1,S2 sedimentary POL surfaces (upper side corresponds to F-young); G granite limit POL surface (upper side corresponds to F-old); F fault TEC surface

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Figure 6

Types of intersection between surfaces

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Figure 7

(a) Example of a geological scene (cross section). This synthetic example records most of the features currently present in geological assemblages :—POL surfaces (the arrow points towards F-young), and ---- TEC surfaces. POL surfaces a,b,c,d,E,m and T are sedimentary surfaces, which respectively underlie sedimentary formations a*,b*,c*,d*,E*,m* and T* (T* actually corresponding to the atmosphere which overlies the topographical surface T). POL surface G is a granite intrusion limit. Surface T is an example of an erosional surface interrupting older surfaces E and X. Surface a is an example of an on-lap surface, which interrupts younger surfaces b and c. F1 and F2 are faults, which split older surfaces E and a into several disconnected parts. Fault F1 stops on fault F2. Thrust surface X separates two different sedimentary assemblages consisting in: Assemblage 1 (formations Dm1,a*,b*,c*,d*,E*), and Assemblage 2 (formations Dm2 and m*). b) Associated GES of rank 1 without taking account of the outside frame of the cross section (c) Associated GES of rank 1 taking into account the outside frame, which can be introduced into the model considering that it is the youngest surface of the scene (d) GES’s of rank 2 to GES’s (b) and (c)

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Figure 8

2-G-Maps description: (a) darts corresponding to geometric object; (b) relations between darts; (c) vertex, (d) edge and (e) face orbits

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Figure 9

(a) Macrotopological and (b) microtopological description of a parametric surface divided in two patches

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Figure 10

G-Maps extension to keep geological relationships, the 2-G-Map shown corresponding in fact to the bold curves topology on front side of the 3D geometric model

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Figure 11

Extended 3-G-Maps description (vertical bold links representing α3 sews between both sides of a face): (a) two continuous geometric surfaces sewed with α2 sews; (b) two segmented geometric surfaces sewed with extended relations β2 (double dashed links)

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Figure 12

Data input: two unsegmented geological surfaces F and H and the corresponding GES. Each arrow goes from the younger surface to the older one

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Figure 13

Determination of the intersections to compute by going through the GES with imbricated interpretation and intersection courses; for each step of the interpretation course, we run an intersection course

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Figure 14

Two examples of the intersection course of a hierarchical GES, bold arrows show the directions of the coverage. (a) The current node is 4-2-2, met nodes are 4-2-1, 4-1, 1, 2, 2-2, 2-1, in this order. (b) The current node is 7, met nodes are 5, 3, 4, 4-2, 4-2-2, 4-2-1, 4-1, 1, 2, 2-2, 2-1

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Figure 15

Intersection rules for POL surfaces

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Figure 16

The different stages of the automatic model building illustrated

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Figure 17

Geometric intersections between surfaces and then between restrictions

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Figure 18

Topological updating after intersection computation. This figure involves two intersection surfaces ni and nj (nj interrupting ni) and the bounding box B. The topological contour TC, which is the boundary of ni, is the result of the intersection routine provided by CAS.CADE. TC is a chain of intersection points (A,B,P,M and K), each point pointing to its 3D coordinates (x,y,z), to the previous and the next points in the chain, and to the three topological faces inside which it is located

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Figure 19

Subdivision of an intersected topological face: nj(a) is subdivided by edge AB(b) and sewed with the intersecting topological face ni(c); vertices embedding is then updated (d)

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Figure 20

(a) The offset solid is constructed by: building at a given distance d two surfaces parallel S1 and S2 parallel to S, extending S to a contour C′ drawn at distance d from the contour C of S; closing the offset solid along C′ (b) The offset solid built around a fault network

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Figure 21

Wireframe view of the final model (DS1) built using the microtopological approach

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Figure 22

Wireframe view of the final model (DS2) built using the microtopological approach

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Figure 23

Geological evolution scheme

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Figure 24

Modified geological evolution scheme

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Figure 26

Macrotopology, DS1 initial geology: results after the preprocessing stage

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Figure 27

Macrotopology, DS1 initial geology: final model

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Figure 28

Macrotopology, DS1 modified geology: final model

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Figure 29

Macrotopology, DS1 initial geology: view of a geological block

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Figure 30

Macrotopology, DS1 modified geology: the shape of the geological block in Fig. 2 appears modified

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Figure 31

Microtopology, DS2 geology: a detailed view

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Figure 32

Microtopology, DS2 geology: final model



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