Accepted Manuscripts

Binbin Zhang, Prakhar Jaiswal, Rahul Rai and Saigopal Nelaturi
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039683
Functionally graded materials (FGM) have recently attracted a lot of research attention in the wake of the recent prominence of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies. The continuously varying spatial composition profile of two or more materials affords FGM to simultaneously possess properties of multiple different materials. Emerging AM technologies enables manufacturing complex shapes with customized multifunctional material properties in an additive fashion. In this paper, we focus on providing an overview of research at the intersection of AM techniques and FGM objects. We specifically discuss FGM modeling representation schemes and outline a classification system to classify existing FGM representation methods. We also highlight the key aspects such as the part orientation, slicing, and path planning processes that are essential for fabricating FGM object through the use of multi-material AM techniques.
TOPICS: Additive manufacturing, Functionally graded materials, Multifunctional materials, Path planning, Shapes, Manufacturing, Wakes, Modeling, Classification
Binsen Qian and Harry H. Cheng
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039638
This paper presents two bio-inspired algorithms for coalition formation of multiple modular robot systems. An effective and efficient coalition formation system can help modular robot system take full advantage of reconfigurability of modular robots. In this article, the multi-robot coalition formation problem is illustrated and a mathematical model for the problem is described. Two bio-inspired algorithms, ant-colony algorithm and genetic algorithm, are introduced for solving the mathematical model. With the two algorithms, it is able to form a large number of robots into many different groups for a variety of applications, such as parallel performance of multiple tasks by multiple teams of robots. The article compares the efficiency and effectiveness of two algorithms for solving the presented problem with case study. The the results for the comparison study are analyzed and discussed. Also, the implementation details of the simulation and experiment using ant colony algorithm are presented in the article.
TOPICS: Algorithms, Biomimetics, Robots, Simulation, Genetic algorithms, Teams
Thiebaut François, Soumiya Bendjebla, Yann Quinsat and Claire Lartigue
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039640
The paper discusses thin part inspection using 3D non rigid registration. The main objective is to match measurement point data to its nominal representation, so as to identify form defects. Since form defects have the same size order as the thickness of the part, establishing such matching is a challenging task. The originality of the method developed in this paper is using a deformable Iterative Closet Point algorithm (ICP), and integrating modal approach to express form defects. The method described improves the matching through iteration of the ICP, and establishes a definition of the error. The results of the application show that the present method is efficient.
TOPICS: Inspection, Algorithms, Errors
Mete Yurtoglu, Molly Carton and Duane W. Storti
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039639
Wepresentauni?edmethodfornumericalevaluationofvolume,surface,andpathintegralsofsmooth,bounded functions on implicitly de?ned bounded domains. The method avoids both the stochastic nature (and slow convergence) of Monte Carlo methods and problem-speci?c domain decompositions required by most traditional numericalintegrationtechniques. Ourapproachoperatesonauniformgridoveranaxis-alignedboxcontainingtheregion ofinterest,sowerefertoitasagrid-basedmethod. Allgrid-basedintegralsarecomputedasasumofcontributions fromastencilcomputationonthegridpoints. Eachclassofintegrals(path,surface,orvolume)involvesadifferent stencil formulation, but grid-based integrals of a given class can be evaluated by applying the same stencil on the same set of grid points; only the data on the grid points changes. When functions are de?ned over the continuous domain so that grid re?nement is possible, grid-based integration is supported by a convergence proof based on wavelet analysis. Given the foundation of function values on a uniform grid, grid-based integration methods apply directly to data produced by volumetric imaging (including computed tomography and magnetic resonance), direct numericalsimulation(DNS)of?uid?ow,oranyothermethodthatproducesdatacorrespondingtovaluesofafunctionsampledonaregulargrid. Everystepofagrid-basedintegralcomputation(includingevaluatingafunctionon a grid, application of stencils on a grid, and reduction of the contributions from the grid points to a single sum) is well-suitedforparallelization. WepresentresultsfromaparallelizedCUDAimplementationofgrid-basedintegrals that faithfully reproduces the output of a serial implementation but with signi?cant reductions in computing time. We also present example grid-based integral results to quantify convergence rates associated with grid re?nement and dependence of the convergence rate on the speci?c choice of difference stencil (corresponding to a particular genus of Daubechies wavelet).
TOPICS: Magnetic resonance, Path integrals, Computerized tomography, Monte Carlo methods, Wavelets, Imaging
Craig Shakarji and Vijay Srinivasan
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039583
This paper addresses the combinatorial characterizations of the optimality conditions for constrained least-squares fitting of circles, cylinders, and spheres to a set of input points. It is shown that the necessary condition for optimization requires contacting at least two input points. It is also shown that there exist cases where the optimal condition is achieved while contacting only two input points. These problems arise in digital manufacturing, where one is confronted with the task of processing a (potentially large) number of points with three-dimensional coordinates to establish datums on manufactured parts. The optimality conditions reported in this paper provide the necessary conditions to verify if a candidate solution is feasible, and to design new algorithms to compute globally optimal solutions.
TOPICS: Cylinders, Fittings, Manufacturing, Algorithms, Design, Optimization
Ramin Sabbagh, Farhad Ameri and Reid Yoder
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039553
Manufacturing capability analysis is a necessary step in the early stages of supply chain formation. In the contract manufacturing industry, companies often advertise their capabilities and services in an unstructured format on the company website. The unstructured capability data usually portrays a realistic view of the services a supplier can offer. If parsed and analyzed properly, unstructured capability data can be used effectively for initial screening and characterization of manufacturing suppliers specially when dealing with a large pool of suppliers. This work proposes a novel framework for capability-based supplier classification that relies on the unstructured capability narratives available on the suppliers websites. Four document classification algorithms, namely, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Nave Bayes (NB), Random Forest (RF), and K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) are used as the text classification techniques. One of the innovative aspects of this work is incorporating a thesaurus-guided method for feature selection and tokenization of capability data. The thesaurus contains the formal and informal vocabulary used in the contract machining industry for advertising manufacturing capabilities. A web-based tool is developed for the generation of the concept vector model associated with each capability narrative and extraction of features from the input documents. The proposed supplier classification framework is validated experimentally through forming two capability classes, namely, heavy component machining and difficult and complex machining, based on real capability data. It was concluded that thesaurus-guided method improves the precision of the classification process.
TOPICS: Manufacturing, Text analytics, Machining, Support vector machines, Algorithms, Feature extraction, Feature selection, Manufacturing industry, Supply chains
Dongliang Zhang, Jituo Li and Jin Wang
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039476
In this paper we present a pattern development method for soft product design. To take into account of physical properties of the material, a physically-based surface fattening method is used to create 2D patterns from a 3D model. We employ multilevel meshes to expedite the flattening process, and a boundary optimization method is proposed to guarantee 2D patterns can be sewn well. We apply the proposed method to the design of real soft products, and experimental results show that it can deal with complex surfaces efficiently and robustly, and manufactured products are satisfactory.
TOPICS: Design, Optimization, Product design, Three-dimensional models
Gaurav Ameta, Gagandeep Singh, Joseph K. Davidson and Jami Shah
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039473
For the first time, Tolerance-Maps© (T-Maps©) are constructed to model composite positional tolerancing applied to patterns (arrays) of features. The T-Map for a feature is a range (codomain) of points obtained by mapping all the variational possibilities (domain) of a feature within its tolerance-zone to a hypothetical Euclidean point space. T-Maps have been developed for tolerances applied to single features, but not for specifications available for tolerancing patterns of features. In this paper, the different pattern tolerancing from the Standards produce distinctions in geometric shape, proportions, and/or dimensions of a T-Map. The T-Map geometry is different when tolerances are specified with composite position tolerancing rather than with two-single-segment control frames. Additional changes to geometry occur when material modifiers are also specified. Two levels of T-Maps are proposed for a pattern of features; assembly-level and part-level. Assembly-level ensures the assembly of an engaging pattern of pins and holes, such as the array of pins on an integrated circuit which are to be inserted into a base. Part-level models the variations between the two parts that contain the engaging patterns. The assembly-level T-maps apply to any number of engaging pin/hole features arranged in any pattern: linear, circular, rectangular, or irregular. In this paper, the part-level T-Map is restricted to linear patterns. The different specifications are compared with a statistical analysis of misalignment for an assembly with linear pattern of pins and holes.
TOPICS: Composite materials, Manufacturing, Pins (Engineering), Geometry, Integrated circuits, Shapes, Statistical analysis, Dimensions
William Bailey, Judy Che, Poyu Tsou and Mark Jennings
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039474
Integrated vehicle simulation models are being increasingly used to improve engineering efficiency and reduce the number of real-world prototypes needed to understand vehicle attributes and subsystem interactions. Each domain within the vehicle must be represented by its own model developed with the appropriate physics, behavior, fidelity, and interfaces needed to interact with other domains in the vehicle. Planning and managing the development of these models across a large, multidisciplinary group of engineers can be a significant effort. In particular, carefully managing each model's interfaces is crucial to enabling the entire process; missing or inappropriately used signals can cause significant issues when many separate domain models are integrated together. To help system engineers better manage these interfaces across a broad variety of applications, a SysML-based modeling approach is proposed to describe these models and their interfaces formally and completely. However, even with a consistent modeling approach, creating and managing interfaces across a large number of domains and applications can be a significant, error-prone task. To reduce the amount of manual modeling work required and help scale the process for complex models, an interface management framework is proposed to help automate the process of importing existing interfaces, routing and visualizing them, and exporting model templates for developers to use when creating new models. By automating this process, it becomes significantly easier to reuse models across simulation architectures (rather than creating new models from scratch) and frees up resources to improve simulation accuracy throughout a system's design.
TOPICS: Physics, Engineers, Simulation, Engineering prototypes, Design, Modeling, Vehicles, Architecture, Errors, Signals, Simulation models
Kevin Lesniak and Conrad Tucker
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039472
Modern RGB-D sensing systems are capable of reconstructing convincing virtual representations of real world environments. These virtual reconstructions can be used as the foundation for Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) environments due to their high quality visualizations. However, a main limitation of modern virtual reconstruction methods is the time it takes to incorporate new data and update the virtual reconstruction. This delay prevents the reconstruction from accurately rendering dynamic objects or portions of the environment (like an engineer performing an inspection of a machinery or lab space). The authors propose a multi-sensor method to dynamically capture objects in an indoor environment. The method automatically aligns the sensors using modern image homography techniques, and leverages Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to process the large number of independent RGB-D data points and render them in real-time. Incorporating and aligning multiple sensors allows a larger area to be captured from multiple angles, providing a more complete virtual representation of the physical space. Performing processing on GPU's leverages the large number of processing cores available to minimize the delay between data capture and rendering. A case study using commodity RGB-D sensors, computing hardware, and standard TCP internet connections is presented to demonstrate the viability of the proposed method.
TOPICS: Rendering, Sensors, Delays, Graphics processing units, Machinery, Internet, Virtual reality, Inspection, Engineers, Hardware, Space, Visualization
Suppawong Tuarob, Sunghoon Lim and Conrad Tucker
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039432
Recently social media has emerged as an alternative, viable source to extract large-scale, heterogeneous product features in a time and cost efficient manner. One of the challenges of utilizing social media data to inform product design decisions is the existence of implicit data such as sarcasm, which accounts for 22.75% of social media data, and has the potential of creating bias in the resulting model. For example, if a customer says ``I just love waiting all day while this song downloads'', an automated product feature extraction model may incorrectly associate a positive sentiment of ``love'' to the cell phone's ability to download. While traditional text mining techniques are designed to handle well-formed text where product features are explicitly inferred from the combination of words, these tools would fail to process these social messages that include implicit product feature information. In this paper, we proposed a method that enables designers to utilize implicit social media data by translating each implicit message into its equivalent explicit form, using the word concurrence network. A case study of Twitter messages that discuss smartphone features is used to validate the proposed method. The results from the experiment not only show that the proposed method improves the interpretability of implicit messages, but also sheds light on potential applications in the design domains where this work could be extended.
TOPICS: Design, Feature extraction, Product design, Text analytics
Technical Brief  
Chih-Hsing Chu and I-Jan Wang
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039335
The cosmetic mask is a popular skin care product widely used by young, and particularly female, consumers. Most cosmetic masks currently on the market offer very few sizes from which to choose; this results in ill-fitting masks with reduced comfortability and skin care functionality. This paper describes how to realize customized design of cosmetic masks using 3D parametric face models derived from scanned facial data. The parametric models approximate individual faces by using a nonlinear regression model with boundary conditions determined as a set of easy-to-measure facial parameters. The models provide the reference geometry for 3D mask designs. A prototyping mask design system implementing the proposed parametric modeling method is created to demonstrate the customized design process. The system allows the user to define the mask shape on the 3D meshes of a face model by specifying inner and outer boundary curves. An automatic flattening function is implemented to unfold the trimmed meshes into a 2D pattern with reduced shape distortion. This study uses cosmetic facial masks as an example product to demonstrate the practical value of applying large-scale anthropometric data for the realization of human-centered design customization.
TOPICS: Design, Shapes, Skin, Respirators, Modeling, Boundary-value problems, Fittings, Geometry, Regression models
Dedy Ariansyah, Giandomenico Caruso, Daniele Ruscio and Monica Bordegoni
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039313
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) allow information provision through visual, auditory, and haptic signals to achieve multi-dimensional goals of mobility. However, processing information from ADAS requires operating expenses of mental workload that drivers incur from their limited attentional resources. The change in driving condition can modulate driver's workload and potentially impair drive's interaction with ADAS. This paper shows how the measure of cardiac activity (heart rate and the indexes of autonomic nervous system) could discriminate the influence of different driving conditions on driver's workload associated with attentional resources engaged while driving with ADAS. Fourteen drivers performed a car following task with visual ADAS in driving simulator. Driver's workload was manipulated in two conditions: one in monotonous condition (constant speed); and another in more active condition (variable speed). Results showed that driver's workload was similarly affected, but the amount of attentional resources allocation was slightly distinct between both conditions. The analysis of main effect of time demonstrated that drivers' workload increased over time without alterations in autonomic indexes regardless of driving condition. However, the main effect of driving condition produced a higher level of sympathetic activation on variable speed driving compared to driving with constant speed. Variable speed driving requires more adjustment of steering wheel movement to maintain lane-keeping performance, which led to higher level of task involvement and increased task engagement. The proposed measures could help to design new adaptive working modalities for ADAS on the account of variation in driving condition.
TOPICS: Design, Haptics, Signals, Nervous system, Steering wheels, Mechanical admittance
John Michopoulos, Athanasios P. Iliopoulos, John Steuben and Virginia DeGiorgi
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039311
In order to account and compensate for the dissipative processes contributing to the aging of cathodic surfaces protected by impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems, it is necessary to develop the proper modeling and numerical infrastructure that can predict aging associated with quantities affecting the controller of these systems. In the present work we describe various approaches for developing Cathodic Surface Aging Models (CSAMs) based on both data-driven and first principles based methodologies. A computational ICCP framework is implemented in a manner that enables the simulation of the effects of cathodic aging in a manner that allows the utilization of various CSAMs that effect the relevant potentiodynamic polarization curves of the cathodic materials. An application of this framework demonstrates the capabilities of this system. We introduce a data-driven CSAM based on a loft-surface approximation, and in response to the limitations of this approach we also formulate a first principles based multiphysics and thermodynamic theory for aging. Furthermore, we discuss the design of a systematic experimental task for validating and calibrating this theory in the near future.
TOPICS: Cathodic protection, Modeling, Approximation, Polarization (Waves), Control equipment, Simulation, Polarization (Electricity), Polarization (Light), Design
John Steuben, Athanasios P. Iliopoulos and John Michopoulos
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039312
The precise control of mass and energy deposition associated with Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes enables the topological specification and realization of how space can be filled by material in multiple scales. Consequently, AM can be pursued in a manner that is optimized such that fabricated objects can best realize performance specifications. In the present work, we propose a computational multiscale method that utilizes the unique meso-scale structuring capabilities of implicit slicers for AM, in conjunction with existing topology optimization tools for the macro-scale, in order to generate structurally optimized components. The use of this method is demonstrated on two example objects including a load bearing bracket and a hand tool. This paper also includes discussion concerning the applications of this methodology, its current limitations, a reimagining of the additive manufacturing digital thread and the future work required to enable its widespread use.
TOPICS: Optimization, Topology, Additive manufacturing, Hand tools, Stress, Thread, Bearings
Dimitrios Anagnostakis, J.M. Ritchie, T Lim, Raymond Sung and Richard Dewar
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039194
Capturing the strategy followed during a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) inspection planning session has been an extremely challenging issue due to the time-consuming nature of traditional methods, such as interviewing experts and technical documents data mining. This paper presents a methodology demonstrating how a motion capture-based system can facilitate direct and non-intrusive CMM operator logging for capturing planning strategies and representing in knowledge formats. With the use of recorded motion data, embedded knowledge and expertise can be captured automatically and formalized in various formats such as motion trajectory graphs, inspection plans, Integrated DEFinition (IDEF) model diagrams and other representations. Additionally, a part program can be generated for driving a CMM to execute component measurement. The system's outputs can be used to help understand how a CMM inspection strategy is planned, as well as training aids for inexperienced operators and the rapid generation of part programs.
TOPICS: Inspection, Coordinate measuring machines, Trajectories (Physics), Data mining
Krishnanand Kaipa, Carlos Morato and Satyandra K. Gupta
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4039061
This paper presents a framework to build hybrid cells that support safe and efficient human-robot collaboration during assembly operations. Our approach allows asynchronous collaborations between human and robot. The human retrieves parts from a bin and places them in the robot's workspace, while the robot picks up the placed parts and assembles them into the product. We present the design details of the overall framework comprising three modules - plan generation, system state monitoring, and contingency handling. We describe system state monitoring and present a characterization of the part tracking algorithm. We report results from human-robot collaboration experiments using a KUKA robot and a 3D-printed mockup of a simplified jet-engine assembly to illustrate our approach.
TOPICS: Robots, Manufacturing, Design, Collaboration, Jet engines, Additive manufacturing, Algorithms
Nathan Kalish, Joseph K. Davidson, Satchit Ramnath, Payam Haghighi and Jami S. Shah
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4038821
Mathematical tools underlie a method that has strong potential to lower the cost of fixture-setup when finishing large castings that have machined surfaces where other components are attached. One math tool, the kinematic transformation, is used for the first time to construct Tolerance-Map (T-Map) models of geometric and size tolerances that are applied to planar faces and to the axes of round shapes, such as pins or holes. For any polygonal planar shape, a generic T-Map primitive is constructed at each vertex of its convex hull, and each is sheared uniquely with the kinematic transformation. All are then intersected to form the T-Map of the given shape in a single frame of reference. For an axis, the generic T-Map primitive represents each circular limit to its tolerance-zone. Both are transformed to a central frame of reference and are intersected to form the T-Map. The paper also contains the construction for the first 5D T-Map for controlling the minimum wall thickness between two concentric cylinders with a least-material-condition tolerance specification on position. It is formed by adding the dimension of size to the T-Map for an axis. The T-Maps described are consistent with geometric dimensioning and tolerancing standards and industry practice. Finally, transformations are presented to translate between small displacement torsor (SDT) coordinates and the classical coordinates for lines and planes used in T-Maps.
TOPICS: Kinematics, Dimensions, Finishing, Construction, Pins (Engineering), Space, Cylinders, Displacement, Shapes, Wall thickness, Hull, Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, Mathematics
Bruno S. Machado, Nilanjan Chakraborty, Mohamed Mamlouk and Prodip K. Das
J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng   doi: 10.1115/1.4037942
In this study, a three-dimensional agglomerate model of an anion exchange membrane fuel cell is proposed in order to account the detailed composition of the catalyst layers (CLs). Here, a detailed comparison between the agglomerate and a macro-homogeneous model is provided, elucidating the effects of the first implementation on the overall performance and the individual losses, the effects operating temperature and inlet relative humidity on the cell performance, and the catalyst layer utilisation by the effectiveness factor. The results show that the macro-homogeneous model overestimates the cell performance compared to the agglomerate model due to the resistances associated with the species and ionic transport in the catalyst layers. Consequently the hydration is negatively affected, resulting in a higher ohmic resistance. The activation overpotential is over-predicted by the macro-homogeneous model, as the agglomerate model relates the transportation resistances within the domain with the CL composition. Despite the higher utilisation in the anode CL, the cathode CL utilisation presents significant drop near the membrane-CL interface, due to the higher current density and low oxygen concentration. Additionally, the effects of operating temperature and relative humidity at the flow channel inlet were analysed. Similar to the macro-homogeneous model, the overall cell performance of the agglomerate model is enhanced with increasing operating temperature due to the better electrochemical kinetics. However, as the relative humidity at the inlet is reduced, the overall performance of the cell deteriorates due to the poor hydration of the membrane.
TOPICS: Fuel cells, Membranes, Catalysts, Operating temperature, Current density, Oxygen, Transportation systems, Flow (Dynamics), Anodes, Overvoltage

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