The applications of a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)-based, a Finite Volume Method (FVM)-based and a Boundary Element Method (BEM)-based tools to investigate the nonlinear interactions between large waves and a submerged horizontal circular structure and to some extent a rectangular cylinder at various submergence depths in deep water conditions are presented. The main aim is to validate the Lagrangian technique based SPH tool to predict the wave-structure interaction forces under large waves.

The features of typical force curves in a wave cycle, the magnitude of wave forces, and the influence of relative axis depth of the structure in deep water conditions are investigated, primarily using an open-sourced SPH tool. Simulations were carried out in 2D with one deepwater wave at multiple submergence depths. The water surface elevations are predicted at different near- and far-field locations. The time-averaged mean and the average amplitude of the horizontal and vertical forces acting on the cylindrical model at various submergence depths are plotted and then physically interpreted. The wave forces and surface elevations are compared with the available published experimental studies and CFD (both FVM and BEM) predictions. Good agreement between the SPH predictions and the measurements was obtained for the submerged body’s surface elevation and hydrodynamic forces at all submergence depths. The FVM tends to overestimate the wave forces compared to the SPH predictions and the measurements, particularly for the shallowly submerged structure when extreme wave breaking occurs. The BEM predictions are reasonable for the non-wave breaking cases.

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