Research Papers

A Generative Human-in-the-Loop Approach for Conceptual Design Exploration Using Flow Failure Frequency in Functional Models1

[+] Author and Article Information
Ryan M. Arlitt

SUTD-MIT International Design Centre,
Singapore University of Technology and Design,
Singapore 487372
e-mails: arlitt.ryan@gmail.com;

Douglas L. Van Bossuyt

Department of Systems Engineering,
Naval Postgraduate School,
Monterey, CA 93940
e-mail: douglas.vanbossuyt@nps.edu

2Present address: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby DK-2800 Kgs, Denmark.

3Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Computers and Information Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 26, 2018; final manuscript received February 14, 2019; published online March 18, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Jitesh H. Panchal.This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 19(3), 031001 (Mar 18, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: JCISE-18-1219; doi: 10.1115/1.4042913 History: Received August 26, 2018; Revised February 14, 2019

A challenge systems engineers and designers face when applying system failure risk assessment methods such as probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) during conceptual design is their reliance on historical data and behavioral models. This paper presents a framework for exploring a space of functional models using graph rewriting rules and a qualitative failure simulation framework that presents information in an intuitive manner for human-in-the-loop decision-making and human-guided design. An example is presented wherein a functional model of an electrical power system testbed is iteratively perturbed to generate alternatives. The alternative functional models suggest different approaches to mitigating an emergent system failure vulnerability in the electrical power system's heat extraction capability. A preferred functional model configuration that has a desirable failure flow distribution can then be identified. The method presented here helps systems designers to better understand where failures propagate through systems and guides modification of systems functional models to adjust the way in which systems fail to have more desirable characteristics.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Walden, D. D. , Roedler, G. J. , Forsberg, K. , Hamelin, R. D. , and Shortell, T. M. , 2015, Systems Engineering Handbook: A Guide for System Life Cycle Processes and Activities, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Ullman, D. G. , 2015, The Mechanical Design Process, McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, New York.
Browning, T. R. , and Eppinger, S. D. , 2002, “ Modeling Impacts of Process Architecture on Cost and Schedule Risk in Product Development,” IEEE Trans. Eng. Manage., 49(4), pp. 428–442.
Browning, T. R. , 1998, “ Sources of Schedule Risk in Complex System Development,” Eighth Annual International Symposium of INCOSE, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 26–30, pp. 129–142. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/19878796.pdf
Wang, J. X. , and Roush, M. L. , 2000, What Every Engineer Should Know About Risk Engineering and Management, CRC Press, New York.
Stamatis, D. H. , 2003, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis: FMEA From Theory to Execution, ASQ Quality Press, Milwaukie, WI.
Ericson, C. , 2005, “ Event Tree Analysis,” Hazard Analysis Techniques for System Safety, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 223–234.
Ericson, C. A. , 2015, “ Fault Tree Analysis,” Hazard Analysis Techniques System Safety, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 183–221.
Kurtoglu, T. , Tumer, I. Y. , and Jensen, D. C. , 2010, “ A Functional Failure Reasoning Methodology for Evaluation of Conceptual System Architectures,” Res. Eng. Des., 21(4), pp. 209–234.
Jensen, D. , Tumer, I. Y. , and Kurtoglu, T. , 2009, “ Flow State Logic (FSL) for Analysis of Failure Propagation in Early Design,” ASME Paper No. DETC2009-87064.
O'Halloran, B. M. , Papakonstantinou, N. , and Van Bossuyt, D. L. , 2015, “ Modeling of Function Failure Propagation Across Uncoupled Systems,” Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), Palm Harbor, FL, Jan. 26–29, pp. 1–6.
L'her, G. , Van Bossuyt, D. L. , and O'Halloran, B. M. , 2017, “ Prognostic Systems Representation in a Function-Based Bayesian Model During Engineering Design,” Int. J. Prognostics Health Manage., 8(2), p. 23. https://www.phmsociety.org/node/2421
O'Halloran, B. M. , Papakonstantinou, N. , and Van Bossuyt, D. L. , 2016, “ Cable Routing Modeling in Early System Design to Prevent Cable Failure Propagation Events,” Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), Tucson, AZ, Jan. 25–28, pp. 1–6.
Dempere, J. , Papakonstantinou, N. , O'Halloran, B. , and Van Bossuyt, D. L. , 2017, “ Risk Modeling of Variable Probability External Initiating Events,” Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), Orland, FL, Feb. 23–26, pp. 1–9.
McIntire, M. G. , Keshavarzi, E. , Tumer, I. Y. , and Hoyle, C. , 2016, “ Functional Models With Inherent Behavior: Towards a Framework for Safety Analysis Early in the Design of Complex Systems,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2016-67040.
Dempere, J. , Papakonstantinou, N. , O'Halloran, B. , and Van Bossuyt, D. L. , 2018, “ Risk Modeling of Variable Probability External Initiating Events in a Functional Modeling Paradigm,” J. Reliab., Maintainability, Supportability in Syst. Eng.
Otto, K. , and Wood, K. , 2001, Product Design: Techniques in Reverse Engineering and New Product Design, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Stone, R. B. , and Wood, K. L. , 2000, “ Development of a Functional Basis for Design,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 122(4), pp. 359–370.
Sage, A. P. , and Rouse, W. B. , 2009, Handbook of Systems Engineering and Management, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Kapurch, S. J. , 2010, NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, Diane Publishing, Hanover, MD.
Cornford, S. L. , Feather, M. S. , and Hicks, K. A. , 2001, “ DDP—A Tool for Life-Cycle Risk Management,” Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT, Mar. 10–17, pp. 1–441.
Stamatelatos, M. , Dezfuli, H. , Apostolakis, G. , Everline, C. , Guarro, S. , Mathias, D. , Mosleh, A. , Paulos, T. , Riha, D. , Smith, C. , Vesely, W. , and Youngblood, R. , 2011, “ Probabilistic Risk Assessment Procedures Guide for NASA Managers and Practitioners,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hanover, MD, Report No. NASA/SP-2011-3421. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20120001369.pdf
Otto, K. N. , and Antonsson, E. K. , 1991, “ Trade-Off Strategies in Engineering Design,” Res. Eng. Des., 3(2), pp. 87–103.
Estefan, J. A. , 2007, “ Survey of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Methodologies,” INCOSE MBSE Focus Group, 25(8), pp. 1–12. http://www.omgsysml.org/MBSE_Methodology_Survey_RevB.pdf
Wertz, J. R. , Everett, D. F. , and Puschell, J. J. , 2011, Space Mission Engineering: The New SMAD, Microcosm Press, Hawthorn, CA.
Sen, P. , and Yang, J.-B. , 2012, Multiple Criteria Decision Support in Engineering Design, Springer Science and Business Media, London.
Blanchard, B. S. , and Fabrycky, W. J. , 1998, Systems Engineering and Analysis, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Haskins, C. , Forsberg, K. , Krueger, M. , Walden, D. , and Hamelin, D. , 2006, Systems Engineering Handbook, INCOSE, Hoboken, NJ.
Friedenthal, S. , Moore, A. , and Steiner, R. , 2014, A Practical Guide to SysML: The Systems Modeling Language, Morgan Kaufmann, Waltham, MA.
Erden, M. S. , Komoto, H. , van Beek, T. J. , D'Amelio, V. , Echavarria, E. , and Tomiyama, T. , 2008, “ A Review of Function Modeling: Approaches and Applications,” AI Edam, 22(2), pp. 147–169. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ai-edam/article/review-of-function-modeling-approaches-and-applications/8B6BC6B83D6E2AC4AA62BD9020E36848
Houkes, W. , and Vermaas, P. E. , 2010, Technical Functions: On the Use and Design of Artefacts, Vol. 1, Springer Science and Business Media, Berlin.
Chakrabarti, A. , Shea, K. , Stone, R. , Cagan, J. , Campbell, M. , Hernandez, N. V. , and Wood, K. L. , 2011, “ Computer-Based Design Synthesis Research: An Overview,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 11(2), p. 021003.
Umeda, Y. , Takeda, H. , Tomiyama, T. , and Yoshikawa, H. , 1990, “ Function, Behaviour, and Structure,” Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, J. S. Gero, ed., Springer, Berlin, pp. 177–193.
Umeda, Y. , Ishii, M. , Yoshioka, M. , Shimomura, Y. , and Tomiyama, T. , 1996, “ Supporting Conceptual Design Based on the Function-Behavior-State Modeler,” AI Edam, 10(4), pp. 275–288. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ai-edam/article/supporting-conceptual-design-based-on-the-functionbehaviorstate-modeler/6B504F9681E22B4530C2A091EBD54B54
Umeda, Y. , Tomiyama, T. , and Yoshikawa, H. , 1995, “ FBS Modeling: Modeling Scheme of Function for Conceptual Design,” Ninth International Workshop on Qualitative Reasoning, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 271–278.
Umeda, Y. , and Tomiyama, T. , 1997, “ Functional Reasoning in Design,” IEEE Expert, 12(2), pp. 42–48.
Tomiyama, T. , Umeda, Y. , and Yoshikawa, H. , 1993, “ A CAD for Functional Design,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 42(1), pp. 143–146.
Yoshioka, M. , Umeda, Y. , Takeda, H. , Shimomura, Y. , Nomaguchi, Y. , and Tomiyama, T. , 2004, “ Physical Concept Ontology for the Knowledge Intensive Engineering Framework,” Adv. Eng. Inf., 18(2), pp. 95–113.
Shimomura, Y. , Yoshioka, M. , Takeda, H. , Umeda, Y. , and Tomiyama, T. , 1998, “ Representation of Design Object Based on the Functional Evolution Process Model,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 120(2), pp. 221–229.
Kitamura, Y. , Kashiwase, M. , Fuse, M. , and Mizoguchi, R. , 2004, “ Deployment of an Ontological Framework of Functional Design Knowledge,” Adv. Eng. Inf., 18(2), pp. 115–127.
Goel, A. K. , Rugaber, S. , and Vattam, S. , 2009, “ Structure, Behavior, and Function of Complex Systems: The Structure, Behavior, and Function Modeling Language,” AI Edam, 23(1), pp. 23–35. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ai-edam/article/structure-behavior-and-function-of-complex-systems-the-structure-behavior-and-function-modeling-language/EA5DF462474A72AD570147F2F1DB3A3B
Goel, A. K. , and Bhatta, S. R. , 2004, “ Use of Design Patterns in Analogy-Based Design,” Adv. Eng. Inf., 18(2), pp. 85–94.
Bhatta, S. , Goel, A. , and Prabhakar, S. , 1994, “ Innovation in Analogical Design: A Model-Based Approach,” Artificial Intelligence in Design'94, Springer, Berlin, pp. 57–74.
Yaner, P. W. , and Goel, A. K. , 2006, “ From Form to Function: From SBF to DSSBF,” Design Computing and Cognition'06, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 423–441.
Bracewell, R. H. , and Sharpe, J. , 1996, “ Functional Descriptions Used in Computer Support for Qualitative Scheme Generation–‘Schemebuilder’,” AI Edam, 10(4), pp. 333–345. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ai-edam/article/functional-descriptions-used-in-computer-support-for-qualitative-scheme-generationschemebuilder/826C2C39EB5475385E85815609886201
Welch, R. V. , and Dixon, J. R. , 1992, “ Representing Function, Behavior and Structure During Conceptual Design,” Fourth International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology, Scottsdale, AZ, Sept. 13–16, pp. 11–18.
Welch, R. V. , and Dixon, J. R. , 1994, “ Guiding Conceptual Design Through Behavioral Reasoning,” Res. Eng. Des., 6(3), pp. 169–188.
Deng, Y.-M. , Britton, G. , and Tor, S. B. , 2000, “ Constraint-Based Functional Design Verification for Conceptual Design,” Comput. Aided Des., 32(14), pp. 889–899.
Deng, Y.-M. , 2002, “ Function and Behavior Representation in Conceptual Mechanical Design,” AI Edam, 16(5), pp. 343–362. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ai-edam/article/function-and-behavior-representation-in-conceptual-mechanical-design/B8DEF53BE864296BBB6AF672A9A4043D
Chakrabarti, A. , and Bligh, T. P. , 2001, “ A Scheme for Functional Reasoning in Conceptual Design,” Des. Stud., 22(6), pp. 493–517.
Chakrabarti, A. , Sarkar, P. , Leelavathamma, B. , and Nataraju, B. , 2005, “ A Functional Representation for Aiding Biomimetic and Artificial Inspiration of New Ideas,” AI Edam, 19(2), pp. 113–132. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ai-edam/article/functional-representation-for-aiding-biomimetic-and-artificial-inspiration-of-new-ideas/624B35744CA137988473CECD0E7CB0E9
Van Wie, M. , Bryant, C. R. , Bohm, M. R. , McAdams, D. A. , and Stone, R. B. , 2005, “ A Model of Function-Based Representations,” AI Edam, 19(2), pp. 89–111. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ai-edam/article/model-of-functionbased-representations/4E9242D4BADD70CD43CBDBC3880E1938
Gero, J. S. , 1990, “ Design Prototypes: A Knowledge Representation Schema for Design,” AI Mag., 11(4), p. 26. https://www.aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/article/view/854
Gero, J. S. , and Kannengiesser, U. , 2004, “ The Situated Function–Behaviour–Structure Framework,” Des. Stud., 25(4), pp. 373–391.
Dorst, K. , and Vermaas, P. E. , 2005, “ John Gero's Function-Behaviour-Structure Model of Designing: A Critical Analysis,” Res. Eng. Des., 16(1–2), pp. 17–26.
Snooke, N. , and Price, C. , 1998, “ Hierarchical Functional Reasoning,” Knowl. Based Syst., 11(5–6), pp. 301–309.
Chandrasekaran, B. , and Josephson, J. R. , 2000, “ Function in Device Representation,” Eng. Comput., 16(3–4), pp. 162–177.
Chandrasekaran, B. , 2005, “ Representing Function: Relating Functional Representation and Functional Modeling Research Streams,” AI Edam, 19(2), pp. 65–74. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ai-edam/article/representing-function-relating-functional-representation-and-functional-modeling-research-streams/58953B688A84EDC564644D80AA6760DE
Keuneke, A. M. , 1991, “ Device Representation-the Significance of Functional Knowledge,” IEEE Expert, 6(2), pp. 22–25.
Keuneke, A. , and Allemang, D. , 1989, “ Exploring the No-Function-in-Structure Principle,” J. Exp. Theor. Artif. Intell., 1(1), pp. 79–89.
Sen, C. , Summers, J. D. , and Mocko, G. M. , 2011, “ A Protocol to Formalise Function Verbs to Support Conservation-Based Model Checking,” J. Eng. Des., 22(11–12), pp. 765–788.
Kurtoglu, T. , and Campbell, M. I. , 2009, “ Automated Synthesis of Electromechanical Design Configurations From Empirical Analysis of Function to Form Mapping,” J. Eng. Des., 20(1), pp. 83–104.
Sridharan, P. , and Campbell, M. I. , 2005, “ A Study on the Grammatical Construction of Function Structures,” AI Edam, 19(3), pp. 139–160. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ai-edam/article/study-on-the-grammatical-construction-of-function-structures/F050B5E15AC2F64FF1A122594A85F68F
Campbell, M. I. , 2009, “ A Graph Grammar Methodology for Generative Systems,” University of Texas, Austin, TX, Technical Report No. 2009-001.
Helms, B. , and Shea, K. , 2012, “ Computational Synthesis of Product Architectures Based on Object-Oriented Graph Grammars,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 134(2), p. 021008.
Qian, L. , and Gero, J. S. , 1996, “ Function–Behavior–Structure Paths and Their Role in Analogy-Based Design,” AI Edam, 10(4), pp. 289–312. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ai-edam/article/functionbehaviorstructure-paths-and-their-role-in-analogybased-design/DA7A02AD92AFD101FB8323E4D18FF6F3
Bohm, M. R. , Stone, R. B. , and Szykman, S. , 2005, “ Enhancing Virtual Product Representations for Advanced Design Repository Systems,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 5(4), pp. 360–372.
McIntire, M. G. , 2016, “ From Functional Modeling to Optimization: Risk and Safety in the Design Process for Large-Scale Systems,” Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
Keshavarzi, E. , McIntire, M. , Goebel, K. , Tumer, I. Y. , and Hoyle, C. , 2017, “ Resilient System Design Using Cost-Risk Analysis With Functional Models,” ASME Paper No. DETC2017-67952.
Slater, M. R. , and Van Bossuyt, D. L. , 2015, “ Toward a Dedicated Failure Flow Arrestor Function Methodology,” ASME Paper No. DETC2015-46270.
Short, A. R. , and Van Bossuyt, D. L. , 2015, “ Active Mission Success Estimation Through Phm-Informed Probabilistic Modelling,” Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, Coronado, CA, Oct. 18–24, Publication Control No. 051.
Short, A.-R. , Lai, A. D. , and Van Bossuyt, D. L. , 2018, “ Conceptual Design of Sacrificial Sub-Systems: Failure Flow Decision Functions,” Res. Eng. Des., 29(1), pp. 23–38.
Arlitt, R. , Van Bossuyt, D. L. , Stone, R. B. , and Tumer, I. Y. , 2017, “ The Function-Based Design for Sustainability Method,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 139(4), p. 041102.
Lynch, K. , Ramsey, R. , Ball, G. , Schmit, M. , and Collins, K. , 2016, “ Ontology-Driven Metamodel Validation in Cyber-Physical Systems,” Information Technology: New Generations, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 1255–1258.
Sztipanovits, J. , Bapty, T. , Neema, S. , Howard, L. , and Jackson, E. , 2014, “ Openmeta: A Model-and Component-Based Design Tool Chain for Cyber-Physical Systems,” Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, Grenoble, France, Apr. 5–13, pp. 235–248.
Simko, G. , Lindecker, D. , Levendovszky, T. , Neema, S. , and Sztipanovits, J. , 2013, “ Specification of Cyber-Physical Components With Formal Semantics–Integration and Composition,” International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, Miami, FL, Sept. 29–Oct. 4, pp. 471–487.
Henley, E. J. , and Kumamoto, H. , 1981, Reliability Engineering and Risk Assessment, Vol. 568, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
O'Halloran, B. M. , Haley, B. , Jensen, D. C. , Arlitt, R. , Tumer, I. Y. , and Stone, R. B. , 2014, “ The Early Implementation of Failure Modes Into Existing Component Model Libraries,” Res. Eng. Des., 25(3), pp. 203–221.
Department of Defense, 1949, “ Procedures for Performing a Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis,” Department of Defense, Washington, DC, Standard. http://www.fmea-fmeca.com/milstd1629.pdf
Tumer, I. , Barrientos, F. , and Mehr, A. F. , 2005, “ Towards Risk Based Design (RBD) of Space Exploration Missions: A Review of RBD Practice and Research Trends at NASA,” ASME Paper No. DETC2005-85100.
Stone, R. B. , Tumer, I. Y. , and Van Wie, M. , 2005, “ The Function-Failure Design Method,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 127(3), pp. 397–407.
Lough, K. G. , Stone, R. , and Tumer, I. Y. , 2009, “ The Risk in Early Design Method,” J. Eng. Des., 20(2), pp. 155–173.
IAEA, 1993, “ Defining Initiating Events for Purpose of Probabilistic Safety Assessment,” International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, Report No. IAEA-TECDOC-719. https://www.iaea.org/publications/981/defining-initiating-events-for-purpose-of-probabilistic-safety-assessment
Zamanali, J. , 1998, “ Probabilistic-Risk-Assessment Applications in the Nuclear-Power Industry,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., 47(3), pp. SP361–SP364.
Gilks, W. R. , Richardson, S. , and Spiegelhalter, D. , 1995, Markov Chain Monte Carlo in Practice, CRC Press, London.
Gilks, W. R. , 2005, “ Markov Chain Monte Carlo,” Encyclopedia of Biostatistics, Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Brooks, S. , Gelman, A. , Jones, G. , and Meng, X.-L. , 2011, Handbook of Markov Chain Monte Carlo, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
David, P. , Idasiak, V. , and Kratz, F. , 2010, “ Reliability Study of Complex Physical Systems Using SysML,” Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf., 95(4), pp. 431–450.
Beck, J. L. , and Au, S.-K. , 2002, “ Bayesian Updating of Structural Models and Reliability Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation,” J. Eng. Mech., 128(4), pp. 380–391.
Koutra, D. , Parikh, A. , Ramdas, A. , and Xiang, J. , 2011, “ Algorithms for Graph Similarity and Subgraph Matching,” Ecology Inference Conference, Carnegie-Mellon-University, Pittsburgh, PA, Technical Report.
Mehrpouyan, H. , Haley, B. , Dong, A. , Tumer, I. Y. , and Hoyle, C. , 2015, “ Resiliency Analysis for Complex Engineered System Design,” AI Edam, 29(1), pp. 93–108. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ai-edam/article/resiliency-analysis-for-complex-engineered-system-design/E866D9F4D91D607F3B584786E30E0B56
Haley, B. M. , Dong, A. , and Tumer, I. Y. , 2016, “ A Comparison of Network-Based Metrics of Behavioral Degradation in Complex Engineered Systems,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 138(12), p. 121405.
Fu, K. , Chan, J. , Cagan, J. , Kotovsky, K. , Schunn, C. , and Wood, K. , 2013, “ The Meaning of ‘Near’ and ‘Far’: The Impact of Structuring Design Databases and the Effect of Distance of Analogy on Design Output,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(2), p. 021007.
Poppa, K. , Arlitt, R. , and Stone, R. , 2013, “ An Approach to Automated Concept Generation Through Latent Semantic Indexing,” IIE Annual Conference, Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE), San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 18–22, p. 151.
Clarke, E. M. , Grumberg, O. , and Peled, D. , 1999, Model Checking, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Ester, M. , Kriegel, H.-P. , Sander, J. , and Xu, X. , 1996, “ A Density-Based Algorithm for Discovering Clusters in Large Spatial Databases With Noise,” Second International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, Portland, OR, Aug. 2–4, pp. 226–231. https://www.aaai.org/Papers/KDD/1996/KDD96-037.pdf
Arnold, C. R. B. , Stone, R. B. , and McAdams, D. A. , 2008, “ Memic: An Interactive Morphological Matrix Tool for Automated Concept Generation,” IIE Annual Conference, Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE), Singapore, Dec. 8–11, p. 1196. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4118/e2b85deeacf9e25182819df1f7e7cb06f43f.pdf
Poll, S. , Patterson-Hine, A. , Camisa, J. , Garcia, D. , Hall, D. , Lee, C. , Mengshoel, O. J. , Neukom, C. , Nishikawa, D. , Ossenfort, J. , Sweet, A. , Yentus, S. , Roychoudhury, I. , Daigle, M. , Biswas, G. , and Koutsoukos, X. , 2007, “ Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed,” 18th International Workshop on Principles of Diagnosis (DX-07), Nashville, TN, May 29–31, pp. 178–185. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228655283_Advanced_diagnostics_and_prognostics_testbed
Keller, W. , and Modarres, M. , 2005, “ A Historical Overview of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Development and Its Use in the Nuclear Power Industry: A Tribute to the Late Professor Norman Carl Rasmussen,” Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf., 89(3), pp. 271–285.
Bly, M. , 2011, Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report, Diane Publishing, Washington, DC.
Ramp, I. J. , and Van Bossuyt, D. L. , 2014, “ Toward an Automated Model-Based Geometric Method of Representing Function Failure Propagation Across Uncoupled Systems,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2014-36514.
Dekker, S. , Cilliers, P. , and Hofmeyr, J.-H. , 2011, “ The Complexity of Failure: Implications of Complexity Theory for Safety Investigations,” Saf. Sci., 49(6), pp. 939–945.
Scott, M. J. , and Antonsson, E. K. , 1999, “ Arrow's Theorem and Engineering Design Decision Making,” Res. Eng. Des., 11(4), pp. 218–228.
Kelly, D. , and Smith, C. , 2011, Bayesian Inference for Probabilistic Risk Assessment: A Practitioner's Guidebook, Springer Science and Business Media, London.
Van Bossuyt, D. L. , O'Halloran, B. M. , and Arlitt, R. M. , 2018, “ Irrational System Behavior in a System of Systems,” IEEE 13th Annual Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SoSE), Paris, France, June 19–22, pp. 343–349.
Grunske, L. , Kaiser, B. , and Papadopoulos, Y. , 2005, “ Model-Driven Safety Evaluation With State-Event-Based Component Failure Annotations,” International Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering, St Louis, MO, May 14–15, pp. 33–48.
O'Halloran, B. M. , Papakonstantinou, N. , Giammarco, K. , and Van Bossuyt, D. L. , 2017, “ A Graph Theory Approach to Functional Failure Propagation in Early Complex Cyber-Physical Systems (CCPSs),” INCOSE International Symposium, Adelaide, Australia, July 15–20, pp. 1734–1748.
Shah, J. J. , Smith, S. M. , and Vargas-Hernandez, N. , 2003, “ Metrics for Measuring Ideation Effectiveness,” Des. Stud., 24(2), pp. 111–134.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The method presented here includes nine distinct steps, as shown in this graphic

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Visualization of roulette wheel sampling with branching factor of 1. Generated models expand outward into the search space toward local regions that are potentially interesting (as opposed to optimal). Higher fitness is represented as light, and lower fitness as dark. When the search concludes, results are selected for presentation to the user with respect to performance and global uniqueness.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Functional model of electrical power system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

A snippet heat map of a model with poor performance. The fan module fails in many scenarios, indicated as a high failure rate in the flows related to cooling the inverter. In some cases, the failure propagates to the flows related to the inverter, which increases the failure rate of those flows.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

A snippet heat map of a model with medium performance. In this case, grammar rules have added an additional subgraph for exporting material, which led to a reduced rate of failure in the associated flows.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In