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Representation of Graded Materials and Structures to Support Tolerance Specification for Additive Manufacturing Application

[+] Author and Article Information
Gaurav Ameta

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899
gaurav.ameta@nist.gov

Paul Witherell

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899
paul.witherell@nist.gov

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4042327 History: Received April 19, 2018; Revised December 11, 2018

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled control over heterogeneous materials and structures in ways that were not previously possible, including functionally graded materials and structures. This paper presents a novel method for representing and communicating heterogeneous materials and structures that include tolerancing of geometry and material together. The aim of the paper is to propose a means to specify nominal materials, nominal structures and allowable material variations in parts, including (a) explicit material and structural transitions and (b) functional transitions to support single and multiple material and structural behaviors. The transition region combines bounded regions (volumes and surfaces) and material distribution and structural variation equations. Tolerancing is defined at two levels, that of the geometry including bounded regions and that of the materials. Material tolerances are defined as allowable material variations from nominal material fractions within a unit volume at a given location computed using material distribution equations. The method is described thorough several case studies of abrupt transitions, lattice based transitions, and multi-material and structural transitions, including tolerances.

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