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Research Papers

Analysis of Autonomic Indexes on Drivers' Workload to Assess the Effect of Visual ADAS on User Experience and Driving Performance in Different Driving Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Dedy Ariansyah

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Politecnico di Milano,
Via La Masa 1,
Milan 20156, Italy
e-mail: dedyariansyah.ariansyah@polimi.it

Giandomenico Caruso

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Politecnico di Milano,
Via La Masa 1,
Milan 20156, Italy
e-mail: giandomenico.caruso@polimi.it

Daniele Ruscio

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Politecnico di Milano,
Via La Masa 1,
Milan 20156, Italy
e-mail: daniele.ruscio@polimi.it

Monica Bordegoni

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Politecnico di Milano,
Via La Masa 1,
Milan 20156, Italy
e-mail: monica.bordegoni@polimi.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Computers and Information Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 26, 2017; final manuscript received January 27, 2018; published online June 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jitesh H. Panchal.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 18(3), 031007 (Jun 12, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: JCISE-17-1243; doi: 10.1115/1.4039313 History: Received October 26, 2017; Revised January 27, 2018

Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) allow information provision through visual, auditory, and haptic signals to achieve multidimensional goals of mobility. However, processing information from ADAS requires operating expenses of mental workload that drivers incur from their limited attentional resources. The change in driving condition can modulate drivers' workload and potentially impair drivers' interaction with ADAS. This paper shows how the measure of cardiac activity (heart rate and the indexes of autonomic nervous system (ANS)) could discriminate the influence of different driving conditions on drivers' workload associated with attentional resources engaged while driving with ADAS. Fourteen drivers performed a car-following task with visual ADAS in a simulated driving. Drivers' workload was manipulated in two driving conditions: one in monotonous condition (constant speed) and another in more active condition (variable speed). Results showed that drivers' workload was similarly affected, but the amount of attentional resources allocation was slightly distinct between both conditions. The analysis of main effect of time demonstrated that drivers' workload increased over time without the alterations in autonomic indexes regardless of driving condition. However, the main effect of driving condition produced a higher level of sympathetic activation on variable speed driving compared to driving with constant speed. Variable speed driving requires more adjustment of steering wheel movement (SWM) to maintain lane-keeping performance, which led to higher level of task involvement and increased task engagement. The proposed measures appear promising to help designing new adaptive working modalities for ADAS on the account of variation in driving condition.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The variation of workload and performance in six regions [15] (Permission granted from Dick De Waard @ 1996)

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Fig. 2

The design of ADAS that guides driver to maintain safe headway distance through visual interface based on time headway

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Fig. 3

System architecture of driving simulator and physiological sensors setup

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Fig. 4

The changes in mean heart rate from the resting baseline in the first- and second-time blocks for different working modalities

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Fig. 5

Cardiac control for two working modalities: constant speed (dashed line) and variable speed (solid line) over the time (T1T2) in autonomic space

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Fig. 6

Steering wheel management performances, as indexed by amplitude of SWM and SDSWM between two working modalities over the time

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Fig. 7

Lane-keeping variability performance, as indexed by SDLP for both working modalities over the time

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