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Research Papers

On the Multiphysics Modeling of Surface Aging Under Cathodic Protection

[+] Author and Article Information
John G. Michopoulos

Fellow ASME
Computational Multiphysics Systems Laboratory,
Center of Materials Physics and Technology,
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,
Washington, DC 20375

Athanasios P. Iliopoulos, John C. Steuben

Mem. ASME
Computational Multiphysics Systems Laboratory,
Center of Materials Physics and Technology,
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,
Washington, DC 20375

Virginia DeGiorgi

Fellow ASME
Multifunctional Materials Branch,
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,
Washington, DC 20375

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Computers and Information Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 14, 2017; final manuscript received January 9, 2018; published online June 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jitesh H. Panchal.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 18(3), 031001 (Jun 12, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: JCISE-17-1225; doi: 10.1115/1.4039311 History: Received October 14, 2017; Revised January 09, 2018

In order to account and compensate for the dissipative processes contributing to the aging of cathodic surfaces protected by impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems, it is necessary to develop the proper modeling and numerical infrastructure that can predict aging associated with quantities affecting the controller of these systems. In the present work, we describe various approaches for developing cathodic surface aging models (CSAMs) based on both data-driven and first principles-based methodologies. A computational ICCP framework is implemented in a manner that enables the simulation of the effects of cathodic aging in a manner that allows the utilization of various CSAMs that affect the relevant potentiodynamic polarization curves of the cathodic materials. An application of this framework demonstrates the capabilities of this system. We introduce a data-driven CSAM based on a loft-surface approximation, and in response to the limitations of this approach, we also formulate a first principles-based multiphysics and thermodynamic theory for aging. Furthermore, we discuss the design of a systematic experimental task for validating and calibrating this theory in the near future.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Computational domain Ω (in cyan) and associated hull boundaries and electrodes

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Fig. 2

Data flow architecture of the proposed ICCP framework

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Fig. 3

The bottom view of the discretized model (left) of submerged cylindrical hull and a close-up of one of the cathodic areas (right)

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Fig. 4

HY-80 potentiodynamic polarization curves from Ref. [21]

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Fig. 5

Contours of the logarithm of the electric field magnitude Log(||E||) on two orthogonal planes intersecting the water volume surrounding a submerged cylinder with defined anodes and cathodes (a) and field distributions realized across the dashed line in (a) for various potentiodynamic polarization curves provided by Hack [21] for HY-80 steel (b)

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Fig. 6

Contours of the electric field magnitude ||E|| on a plane 1m below the axis of the cylinder for various potentiodynamic polarization curves provided by Hack [21] for HY-80 steel corresponding to respective exposure times

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Fig. 7

HY-80 polarization surface produced by the LSM for the set of potentiodynamic polarization data provided by Hack [21]

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Fig. 8

Butler–Volmer model for platinum or palladium electrodes for the cases of αa=01,03,05;Veq=0.0Volts (cluster of lines with minimum at 0 Volts) and for the case of αc=0.1;Veq=0.01Volts (single line with minimum at −0.01 Volts)

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Fig. 9

Overview of an ICCP system (a) and nano-scale notional magnification of the cathodic surface and associated domains of interest (b) along with the depiction of the double layer and the inner and outer Helmholtz planes. Superimposed on (b) is the distribution of the electric potential at the interface in state of equilibrium as a function of the geometrical distance from the idealized surface.

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Fig. 10

Conceptual diagram of the experimental ICCP system

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Fig. 11

Diagram of the array of the planned simultaneous experiments

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