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Research Papers

Powder Mixed Electric Discharge Machining: An Innovative Surface Modification Technique to Enhance Fatigue Performance and Bioactivity of β-Ti Implant for Orthopedics Application

[+] Author and Article Information
Chander Prakash

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
UIET, South Campus,
Panjab University,
Sector-25,
Chandigarh 160014, India
e-mail: chander.mechengg@gmail.com

H. K. Kansal

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
UIET, South Campus,
Panjab University,
Sector-25,
Chandigarh 160014, India
e-mail: shaarut@yahoo.com

B. S. Pabla

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Institute of Technical Teachers
Training & Research, NITTTR,
Sector-26,
Chandigarh 160019, India
e-mail: bsp@nitttrchd.ac.in

Sanjeev Puri

Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering,
Panjab University,
Sector-14,
Chandigarh 160014, India;
Department of Biotechnology,
UIET, South Campus,
Panjab University,
Sector-25,
Chandigarh 160014, India
e-mail: spuri_1111@yahoo.com

Contributed by the Computers and Information Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 29, 2016; final manuscript received June 11, 2016; published online November 7, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Giorgio Colombo.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 16(4), 041006 (Nov 07, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: JCISE-16-1046; doi: 10.1115/1.4033901 History: Received January 29, 2016; Revised June 11, 2016

The development of surface modification technique has been the subject of the studies regarding the fatigue performance and biological characterization of the modified layers. In the present research work, powder mixed electric discharge machining (PMEDM) a novel nonconventional machining technique has been proposed for surface modification of β-Ti implant for orthopedics application. The surface topography and morphology like roughness, surface cracks, and recast layer thickness of each of the machined specimens were investigated using Mitutoyo surface roughness tester and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), respectively. This study aims to investigate the effect of surface characteristics of PMEDM process on the fatigue performance and bioactivity of β-Ti implants and moreover a comparative analysis is made on the fatigue performance and biological activity of specimens machined with presently used machining methods like electric discharge machining (EDM) and mechanical polishing. The high cycle fatigue (HCF) performance of polished specimens was superior and had no adverse effect of microstructure on fatigue endurance. As expected, the fatigue behavior of β-Ti implant-based alloy, after undergoing EDM treatment, is poorly observed due to the microrough surface. The fatigue performance is dependent on microstructure and surface roughness of the specimens. Subsequent PMEDM process significantly improves the fatigue endurance of β-Ti implant-based alloy specimens. PMEDMed surface with micro-, sub-micro-, and nano-structured topography exhibited excellent bioactivity and improved biocompatibility. PMEDMed surface enabled better adhesion and growth of MG-63 when compared with the polished and EDMed substrate. Furthermore, the differentiation results indicated that a combination of nanoscale featured submicrorough PMEDMed surface promotes various osteoblast differentiation activities like alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin production, the local factor osteoprotegerin, which inhibits osteoclastogenesis.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) EDM machine; (b) and (c) experimental setup of PMEDM

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Fig. 2

100 KN UTM machine for tensile and fatigue testing

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Fig. 3

(a) Microstructure, (b) SEM micrographs, (c) EDS spectrum, and (d) XRD pattern of unmachined β-Ti alloy

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Fig. 4

Stress–strain tensile curve of the β-Ti alloy

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Fig. 5

SEM images of (a) and (b) EDM-machined and (c) and (d) PMEDM-machined β-Ti alloy specimens

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Fig. 6

Cross section SEM micrograph of (a) EDMed surface and (b) PMEDMed surface

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Fig. 7

Surface roughness parameters of the polished, EDMed, and PMEDMed β-Ti alloy

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Fig. 8

(a) S–N curve of fatigue tests for polished, EDMed, and PMEDMed β-Ti alloy

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Fig. 9

Attachment of MG-63 cells on (a) polished, (b) EDMed, and (c) PMEDMed surface, and (d) MTT assay of MG-63 cells after culture for 1, 3, and 7 days

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Fig. 10

Cell proliferation and differentiation results (a) DNA content, (b) ALP activity, (c) osteocalcin, and (d) osteoprotegerin at 24 hrs of cell culture

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