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Research Papers

Algorithms for Multilayer Conformal Additive Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Joshua D. Davis

Robot and Protein Kinematics Lab,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore, MD 21218
e-mail: jdavi160@jhu.edu

Michael D. Kutzer

Weapons and Systems Engineering,
United States Naval Academy,
Annapolis, MD 21401
e-mail: kutzer@usna.edu

Gregory S. Chirikjian

Robot and Protein Kinematics Lab,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore, MD 21218
e-mail: gregc@jhu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 24, 2015; final manuscript received February 28, 2016; published online April 15, 2016. Editor: Bahram Ravani.This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 16(2), 021003 (Apr 15, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: JCISE-15-1434; doi: 10.1115/1.4033047 History: Received December 24, 2015; Revised February 28, 2016

Despite the rapid advance of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies in recent years, methods to fully encase objects with multilayer, thick features are still undeveloped. This issue can be overcome by printing layers conformally about an object's natural boundary, as opposed to current methods that utilize planar layering. With this mindset, two methods are derived to generate layers between the boundaries of initial and desired geometric objects in both two and three dimensions. The first method is based on variable offset curves (VOCs) and is applicable to pairs of initial and desired geometric objects that satisfy mild compatibility conditions. In this method, layers are generated by uniformly partitioning each of the normal line segments emanating from the initial object boundary and intersecting the desired object. The second method is based on manipulated solutions to Laplace's equation and is applicable to all geometric objects. Using each method, we present examples of layer generation for several objects of varying convexities. Results are compared, and the respective advantages and limitations of each method are discussed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Comparison of cross-sectional views for a printed object

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Fig. 2

An example of the dependence of a compatible desired object on the position of the initial object (a) a compatible desired object and (b) a incompatible desired object

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Fig. 5

Surface evolution of an ellipsoid to a nonconvex surface: (a) initial surface (an ellipsoid), (b) first layer, (c) second layer, (d) third layer, (e) fourth layer, and (f) final layer

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Fig. 3

Layers generated for arbitrary nonconvex geometries: (a) colocated nonconvex objects and (b) off-center nonconvex objects

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Fig. 4

Surface evolution of an ellipsoid to a convex surface: (a) initial surface (a sphere), (b) first layer, (c) second layer, (d) third layer, (e) fourth layer, and (f) final layer

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Fig. 7

Layers generated for an annulus: (a) layers generated by the VOC method and (b) layers generated by the Laplace's equation method

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Fig. 8

The general convexity case: (a) layers generated by the VOC method and (b) layers generated by the Laplace's equation method

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Fig. 11

Three-dimensional layer generation from an ellipsoid to a nonconvex surface with a single ellipsoidal hollow feature: (a) initial surface (right) with an ellipsoidal hollow feature (left), (b) first layer, (c) second layer, (d) third layer, (e) fourth layer, and (f) final layer

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Fig. 9

The compatible geometric object case: (a) layers generated by the VOC method and (b) layers generated by the Laplace's equation method

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Fig. 10

Two-dimensional layer generation using the Laplace's equation method for single and multiple hollow features: (a) layer generation for a single hollow feature, (b) closeup of the layers around a single hollow feature, (c) layer generation for multiple hollow features, (d) closeup of the layers around multiple hollow features, (e) layer generation for overlapping hollow features, and (f) closeup of the layers around overlapping hollow features

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Fig. 6

Comparison of reparametrized layers for the Laplace's equation method: (a) original equipotential curves and (b) uniformly partitioned layers from reparametrization

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