0
Research Papers

An Ontology and Integration Framework for Smart Communities

[+] Author and Article Information
Shishir Kinkar

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
NASA Ames Research Park,
Bldg. 23 (MS 23-11), P.O. Box 1,
Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001
e-mail: shishir.kinkar@sv.cmu.edu

Mark Hennessy

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
Freischuetzstr. 106,
2. OG, bei Wolkowa,
Munich 81927, Germany
e-mail: mhennessy116@gmail.com

Steven Ray

Mem. ASME
Silicon Valley Campus,
Carnegie Mellon University,
NASA Ames Research Park,
Bldg. 23 (MS 23-11), P.O. Box 1,
Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001
e-mail: steve.ray@sv.cmu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 5, 2014; final manuscript received November 3, 2015; published online January 13, 2016. Editor: Bahram Ravani.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 16(1), 011003 (Jan 13, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: JCISE-14-1270; doi: 10.1115/1.4032218 History: Received September 05, 2014; Revised November 03, 2015

This paper describes our work concerning the definition of a neutral, abstract ontology, and framework that supports the vision and diverse contexts of a smart community. This framework is composed of a general, core ontology that supports what many are calling the Internet of Things (IoT), a scalable number of extension ontologies to describe various application perspectives, and a mapping methodology to relate external data and/or schemas to our ontology. Finally, we show why this ontology is scalable and generic enough to support a wide range of smart devices, systems, and people.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Ontologies
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Wang, W. , De, S. , Toenjes, R. , Reetz, E. , and Moessner, K. , 2012, “ A Comprehensive Ontology for Knowledge Representation in the Internet of Things,” IEEE 11th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), pp. 1793–1798.
Xia, F. , and Ma, J. , 2011, “ Building Smart Communities With Cyber-Physical Systems,” Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on From Digital Footprints to Social and Community Intelligence (SCI 2011), ACM, New York, pp. 1–6.
Lorena, O.-C. , 2015, “ Ontology Matching: A Literature Review,” Exp. Syst. Appl., 42(2), pp. 949–971. [CrossRef]
Cullot, N. , Ghawi, R. , and Yétongnon, K. , 2007, “ DB2OWL: A Tool for Automatic Database-to-Ontology Mapping,” Italian Symposium on Advanced Database Systems (SEBD), pp. 491–494.
Rodríguez, B. J. , Corcho, Ó. , and Gómez-Pérez, A. , 2004, “ R2O, An Extensible and Semantically Based Database-to-Ontology Mapping Language,” Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Semantic Web and Databases, SWDB, pp. 1069–1070.
Kalfoglou, Y. , and Schorlemmer, M. , 2003, “ IF-Map: An Ontology-Mapping Method Based on Information-Flow Theory,” Journal on Data Semantics I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 98–127.
Maedche, A. , Motik, B. , Silva, N. , and Volz, R. , 2002, “ MAFRA—A Mapping Framework for Distributed Ontologies,” Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management: Ontologies and the Semantic Web, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 235–250.
Mitra, P. , Noy, N. F. , and Jaiswal, A. R. , 2005, “ OMEN: A Probabilistic Ontology Mapping Tool,” ISWC 2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Heidelberg, Vol. 3729, pp. 537–547.
Ehrig, M. , and Staab, S. , 2004, “ QOM—Quick Ontology Mapping,” ISWC 2004, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Heidelberg, Vol. 3298, pp. 683–697.
“ OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview,” http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/
Horrocks, I. , Patel-Schneider, P. F. , and Harmelen, F. V. , 2003, “ From SHIQ and RDF to OWL: The Making of a Web Ontology Language,” Web Semantics, 1(1), pp. 7–26. [CrossRef]
Sheth, A. P. , and Ramakrishnan, C. , 2003, “ Semantic (Web) Technology in Action: Ontology Driven Information Systems for Search, Integration and Analysis,” IEEE Data Eng. Bull., 26(4), pp. 40–48, http://sites.computer.org/debull/A03dec/issue1.htm
Baader, F. , Calvanese, D. , McGuinness, D. , Nardi, D. , and Patel-Schneider, P. , eds., 2002, The Description Logic Handbook, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
“ RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax, W3C Recommendation,” Last accessed Feb. 25, 2014, http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/
Bizer, C. , Heath, T. , Idehen, K. , and Berners-Lee, T. , 2008, “ Linked Data on the Web (LDOW2008),” Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 1265–1266.
Yu, L. , 2011, “ Linked Open Data,” A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web, Springer, Berlin, pp. 409–466.
ISO/IEC 24707:2007, “ Information Technology—Common Logic (CL): A Framework for a Family of Logic-Based Languages,” http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=39175
Song, I. , Haam, D. , Kim, H. , and Kim, K. H. , 2010, “ OntLMS: An Ontology-Based Lifelog Management System,” 12th International Asia-Pacific Web Conference (APWEB), pp. 341–343.
Lee, S. , Gong, G. , Hwang, I. , and Lee, S. , 2010, “ LifeLogOn: A Practical Lifelog System for Building and Exploiting Lifelog Ontology,” IEEE International Conference on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, and Trustworthy Computing (SUTC), pp. 367–373.
Packer, H. S. , Smith, A. , and Lewis, P. , 2012, “ MemoryBook: Generating Narratives From Lifelogs,” Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Narrative and Hypertext, pp. 7–12.
Lee, S. , Gihyun, G. , and Lee, S. , 2010, “ Entity-Event Lifelog Ontology Model (EELOM) for LifeLog Ontology Schema Definition,” 12th International Asia-Pacific Web Conference (APWEB), pp. 344–346.
2003, “The Friend of a Friend (FOAF) Project,” http://www.foaf-project.org/
Lange, C. , Bojars, U. , Groza, T. , Breslin, J. G. , and Handschuh, S. , 2008, “ Expressing Argumentative Discussions in Social Media Sites,” Social Data on the Web (SDoW), Workshop at the 7th International Semantic Web Conference, pp. 31–42.
Crapo, A. , Griffith, K. , Khandelwal, A. , Lizzi, J. , Moitra, A. , and Wang, X. , 2010, “ Overcoming Challenges Using the CIM as a Semantic Model for Energy Applications,” Grid-Interop Forum, GridWise Architecture Council, http://www.gridwiseac.org/pdfs/forum_papers10/crapopaper_gi10.pdf
Compton, M. , Henson, C. , Neuhaus, H. , Lefort, L. , and Sheth, A. , 2009, “ A Survey of the Semantic Specification of Sensors,” 2nd International Workshop on Semantic Sensor Networks, 8th International Semantic Web Conference, CEUR, Aachen, Germany, Vol. 522, pp. 17–32.
Eastman, R. , Schlenoff, C. , Balakirsky, S. , and Hong, T. , 2013, “ A Sensor Ontology Literature Review,” NIST Interagency Report No. 7908.
Konstantinos, K. , and Katasonov, A. , “ An IoT-Ontology for the Representation of Interconnected, Clustered and Aligned Smart Entities,” http://semantic-web-journal.org/sites/default/files/swj247.pdf
Janowicz, K. , and Compton, M. , 2010, The Stimulus-Sensor-Observation Ontology Design Pattern and Its Integration into the Semantic Sensor Network Ontology, 3rd International Workshop on Semantic Sensor Networks, CEUR, Aachen, Germany, Vol. 668.
Gangemi, A. , Guarino, N. , Masolo, C. , Oltramari, A. , and Schneider, L. , 2002, “ Sweetening Ontologies With DOLCE,” Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management: Ontologies and the Semantic Web, Springer, Berlin, pp. 166–181.
Hodgson, R. , and Keller, P. J. , 2011, “ QUDT—Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Data Types in OWL and XML,” http://www.qudt.org/
2008, “ LODE: An Ontology for Linking Open Descriptions of Events,” http://linkedevents.org/
Raimond, Y. , and Abdallah, S. , 2007, “ The Event Ontology,” http://motools.sourceforge.net/event
“ Open Referral,” https://www.openreferral.org/
“ SPARQL 1.1 Overview, W3C Recommendation,” Last accessed Mar. 21, 2013, http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-overview/
Knublauch, H. , Hendler, J. A. , and Idehen, K. , 2011, “ SPIN-Overview and Motivation,” W3C Member Submission, http://www.w3.org/Submission/spin-overview/
“SPARQLMotion,” http://sparqlmotion.org/
Crockford, D. , 2006, “ The Application/JSON Media Type for Javascript Object Notation (JSON),” https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4627
Knublauch, H. , “ SPINMap: SPARQL-Based Ontology Mapping With a Graphical Notation,” http://composing-the-semantic-web.blogspot.com/2011/04/spinmap-sparql-based-ontology-mapping.html
Rumbaugh, J. , Jacobson, I. , and Booch, G. , 2004, The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual, 2nd Edition, Pearson Higher Education, Boston, MA.
Miller, G. , 1995, “ WordNet: A Lexical Database for English,” Commun. ACM, 38(11), pp. 39–41. [CrossRef]
Ray, S. R. , 2002, “ Interoperability Standards in the Semantic Web,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 2(1), pp. 65–68. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Smart Community ontology components: Resource, Event, Service, and Location

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Some subclasses of resource, and part of the measurement model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The CMUSV ontology components

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Some extensions introduced by the OpenReferral context, shown at lower right

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Overview of ontology generation and mapping

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Properties and constraints generated from JSON

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Mapping the generated JSON Ontology to the smart community ontology

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Example of an input model that makes different modeling choices

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

SPIN rule for identifying and creating device types as subclasses

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Class hierarchy before and after running the reasoner

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In