0
Research Papers

Peg-in-Hole Revisited: A Generic Force Model for Haptic Assembly

[+] Author and Article Information
Morad Behandish

Computational Design Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Connecticut,
Storrs, CT 06269
e-mail: m.behandish@engr.uconn.edu

Horea T. Ilieş

Computational Design Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Connecticut,
Storrs, CT 06269
e-mail: ilies@engr.uconn.edu

A short version of this article was presented at the ASME IDETC/CIE'2014 Conferences, DOI: 10.1115/DETC2014-35290.Contributed by the Computers and Information Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 2, 2014; final manuscript received May 22, 2015; published online August 20, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Bahram Ravani.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 15(4), 041004 (Aug 20, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: JCISE-14-1443; doi: 10.1115/1.4030749 History: Received December 02, 2014

The development of a generic and effective force model for semi-automatic or manual virtual assembly with haptic support is not a trivial task, especially when the assembly constraints involve complex features of arbitrary shape. The primary challenge lies in a proper formulation of the guidance forces and torques that effectively assist the user in the exploration of the virtual environment (VE), from repulsing collisions to attracting proper contact. The secondary difficulty is that of efficient implementation that maintains the standard 1 kHz haptic refresh rate. We propose a purely geometric model for an artificial energy field that favors spatial relations leading to proper assembly, differentiated to obtain forces and torques for general motions. The energy function is expressed in terms of a cross-correlation of shape-dependent affinity fields, precomputed offline separately for each object. We test the effectiveness of the method using familiar peg-in-hole examples. We show that the proposed technique unifies the two phases of free motion and precise insertion into a single interaction mode and provides a generic model to replace the ad hoc mating constraints or virtual fixtures, with no restrictive assumption on the types of the involved assembly features.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

El Saddik, A., Orozco, M., Eid, M., and Cha, J., 2011, Haptics Technologies: Bringing Touch to Multimedia, 1st ed., Springer, New York.
Moreau, G. , Fuchs, P. , and Stergiopoulos, P. , 2004, “Applications of Virtual Reality in the Manufacturing Industry: From Design Review to Ergonomic Studies,” Méc. Ind., 5(2), pp. 171–179. [CrossRef]
Bordegoni, M. , Colombo, G. , and Formentini, L. , 2006, “Haptic Technologies for the Conceptual and Validation Phases of Product Design,” Comput. Graphics, 30(3), pp. 377–390. [CrossRef]
Ferrise, F. , Bordegoni, M. , and Lizaranzu, J. , 2010, “Product Design Review Application Based on a Vision–Sound–Haptic Interface,” Haptic and Audio Interaction Design (Lecture Notes in Computer Science), Vol. 6306, S. Nordahl , R. Serafin , F. Fontana , and S. Brewster , eds., Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 169–178.
Bullinger, H. J. , Breining, R. , and Bauer, W. , 1999, “Virtual Prototyping—State of the Art in Product Design,” 26th International Conference on Computers and Industrial Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 103–107.
Wang, G. G. , 2002, “Definition and Review of Virtual Prototyping,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 2(3), pp. 232–236. [CrossRef]
Gomes de Sa, A. , and Zachmann, G. , 1999, “Virtual Reality as a Tool for Verification of Assembly and Maintenance Processes,” Comput. Graphics, 23(3), pp. 389–403. [CrossRef]
Volkov, S. , and Vance, J. M. , 2001, “Effectiveness of Haptic Sensation for the Evaluation of Virtual Prototypes,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 1(2), pp. 123–128. [CrossRef]
Seth, A. , Vance, J. M. , and Oliver, J. H. , 2011, “Virtual Reality for Assembly Methods Prototyping: A Review,” Virtual Reality, 15(1), pp. 5–20. [CrossRef]
Lim, T. , Ritchie, J. M. , Sung, R. , Kosmadoudi, Z. , Liu, Y. , and Thin, A. G. , 2010, “Advances in Haptics,” Haptic Virtual Reality Assembly—Moving Towards Real Engineering Applications, InTech, pp. 693–722.
Vance, J. M. , and Dumont, G. , 2011, “A Conceptual Framework to Support Natural Interaction for Virtual Assembly Tasks,” 2011 ASME World Conference on Innovative Virtual Reality (WINVR'2011), Milan, Italy, pp. 273–278.
Perret, J. , Kneschke, C. , Vance, J. M. , and Dumont, G. , 2013, “Interactive Assembly Simulation With Haptic Feedback,” Assem. Autom., 33(3), pp. 214–220. [CrossRef]
Hasegawa, S. , and Sato, M. , 2004, “Real-Time Rigid Body Simulation for Haptic Interactions Based on Contact Volume of Polygonal Objects,” Comput. Graphics Forum, 23(3), pp. 529–538. [CrossRef]
Mirtich, B. , and Canny, J. , 1995, “Impulse-Based Simulation of Rigid Bodies,” 1995 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics (I3D’1995), Monterey, CA, pp. 181–217.
Hayward, V. , and Armstrong, B. , 2000, “A New Computational Model of Friction Applied to Haptic Rendering,” Experimental Robotics VI, Springer, New York, pp. 403–412.
Renouf, M. , Acary, V. , and Dumont, G. , 2005, “3D Frictional Contact and Impact Multibody Dynamics. A Comparison of Algorithms Suitable for Real-Time Applications,” ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Mutlibody Dynamics, Madrid, Spain, pp. 1–20.
Tching, L. , and Dumont, G. , 2008, “Haptic Simulations Based on Non-Smooth Dynamics for Rigid-Bodies,” 15th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST’2008), Bordeaux, France, pp. 87–90.
Jimenez, P. , Thomas, F. , and Torras , 2001, “3D Collision Detection: A Survey,” Comput. Graphics, 25(2), pp. 269–285. [CrossRef]
Kockara, S. , Halic, T. , Iqbal, K. , Bayrak, C. , and Rowe, R. , 2007, “Collision Detection: A Survey,” 2007 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (ISIC’2007), Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Oct. 7–10, pp. 4046–4051.
Teschner, M. , Kimmerle, S. , Heidelberger, B. , Zachmann, G. , Raghupathi, L. , Fuhrmann, A. , Cani, M. P. , Faure, F. , Magnenat-Thalmann, N. , Strasser, W. , and Volino, P. , 2005, “Collision Detection for Deformable Objects,” Comput. Graphics Forum, 24(1), pp. 61–81. [CrossRef]
Mirtich, B. , 1998, “V-Clip: Fast and Robust Polyhedral Collision Detection,” ACM Trans. Graphics, 17(3), pp. 177–208. [CrossRef]
Ehmann, S. A. , and Lin, M. C. , 2000, “Accelerated Proximity Queries Between Convex Polyhedra by Multi-Level Voronoi Marching,” 2000 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS'2000), Takamatsu, Japan, Vol. 3, pp. 2101–2106.
Ehmann, S. A. , and Lin, M. C. , 2001, “Accurate and Fast Proximity Queries Between Polyhedra Using Convex Surface Decomposition,” Comput. Graphics Forum, 20(3), pp. 500–511. [CrossRef]
Coutee, A. S. , McDermott, S. D. , and Bras, B. , 2001, “A Haptic Assembly and Disassembly Simulation Environment and Associated Computational Load Optimization Techniques,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 1(2), pp. 113–122. [CrossRef]
Coutee, A. S. , and Bras, B. , 2002, “Collision Detection for Virtual Objects in a Haptic Assembly and Disassembly Simulation Environment,” ASME Paper No. DETC2002/CIE-34385.
Gottschalk, S. , Lin, M. C. , and Manocha, D. , 1996, “OBBTree: A Hierarchical Structure for Rapid Interference Detection,” 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH'1996), New Orleans, LA, pp. 171–180.
Wan, H. , Gao, S. , Peng, Q. , Dai, G. , and Zhang, F. , 2004, “MIVAS: A Multi-Modal Immersive Virtual Assembly System,” ASME Paper No. DETC2004-57660.
McNeely, W. A. , Puterbaugh, K. D. , and Troy, J. J. , 2005, “Six Degree-of-Freedom Haptic Rendering Using Voxel Sampling,” ACM SIGGRAPH’2005 Courses, New York.
McNeely, W. A. , Puterbaugh, K. D. , and Troy, J. J. , 2006, “Voxel-Based 6-DOF Haptic Rendering Improvements,” Haptics-e, 3(7), pp. 1–12.
Barbič, J. , and James, D. , 2007, “Time-Critical Distributed Contact for 6-DOF Haptic Rendering of Adaptively Sampled Reduced Deformable Models,” ACM SIGGRAPH’2007/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (SCA'2007), San Diego, CA, pp. 171–180.
Sagardia, M. , Hulin, T. , Preusche, C. , and Hirzinger , 2008, “Improvements of the Voxmap-PointShell Algorithm—Fast Generation of Haptic Data-Structures,” 53rd Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau, Germany.
Renz, M. , Preusche, C. , Pötke, M. , Kriegel, H. P. , and Hirzinger, G. , 2001, “Stable Haptic Interaction With Virtual Environments Using an Adapted Voxmap-PointShell Algorithm,” EuroHaptics 2001, Birmingham, UK.
Johnson, D. C. , and Vance, J. M. , 2001, “The Use of the Voxmap PointShell Method of Collision Detection in Virtual Assembly Methods Planning,” 2001 ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE’2001), Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 1169–1172.
Kim, C. E. , and Vance, J. M. , 2004, “Collision Detection and Part Interaction Modeling to Facilitate Immersive Virtual Assembly Methods,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 4(2), pp. 83–90. [CrossRef]
Seth, A. , Su, H. J. , and Vance, J. M. , 2008, “Development of a Dual-Handed Haptic Assembly System: SHARP,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 8(4), pp. 044502-1–044502-8. [CrossRef]
Seth, A. , Vance, J. M. , and Oliver, J. H. , 2010, “Combining Dynamic Modeling With Geometric Constraint Management to Support Low Clearance Virtual Manual Assembly,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 132(8), p. 081002. [CrossRef]
Marcelino, L. , Murray, N. , and Fernando, T. , 2003, “A Constraint Manager to Support Virtual Maintainability,” Comput. Graphics, 27(1), pp. 19–26. [CrossRef]
Murray, N. , and Fernando, T. , 2004, “An Immersive Assembly and Maintenance Simulation Environment,” 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real-Time Applications (DS-RT’2004), Budapest, Hungary, Oct. 21–23, pp. 159–166.
Wang, Y. , Jayaram, U. , Jayaram, S. , and Imtiyaz, S. , 2003, “Methods and Algorithms for Constraint-Based Virtual Assembly,” Virtual Reality, 6(4), pp. 229–243. [CrossRef]
Tching, L. , Dumont, G. , and Perret, J. , 2010, “Interactive Simulation of CAD Models Assemblies Using Virtual Constraint Guidance,” Int. J. Interact. Des. Manuf., 4(2), pp. 95–102. [CrossRef]
Rosenberg, L. B. , 1993, “Virtual Fixtures: Perceptual Tools for Telerobotic Manipulation,” 1993 IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (VRAIS'1996), Seattle, WA, Sep. 18–22, pp. 76–82.
Iacob, R. , Mitrouchev, P. , and Leon, J. C. , 2008, “Contact Identification for Assembly–Disassembly Simulation With a Haptic Device,” Visual Comput., 24(11), pp. 973–979. [CrossRef]
Boussuge, F. , Léon, J. C. , Hahmann, S. , and Fine, L. , 2012, “An Analysis of DMU Transformation Requirements for Structural Assembly Simulations,” 8th International Conference on Engineering Computational Technology (ECT'2012), Dubrovnik, Croatia, pp. 1–22.
Iacob, R. , Mitrouchev, P. , and Leon, J. C. , 2011, “Assembly Simulation Incorporating Component Mobility Modelling Based on Functional Surfaces,” Int. J. Interact. Des. Manuf., 5(2), pp. 119–132. [CrossRef]
Bowman, D. , Johnson, D. , and Hodges, L. , 2001, “Testbed Evaluation of Virtual Environment Interaction Techniques,” Presence, 10(1), pp. 75–95. [CrossRef]
Requicha, A. G. , 1980, “Mathematical Models of Rigid Solid Objects,” Production Automation Project, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, Technical Memo. No. 28.
Requicha, A. G. , 1980, “Representations of Rigid Solid Objects,” Production Automation Project, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, Technical Memo. No. 29.
Chazal, F. , and Soufflet, R. , 2004, “Stability and Finiteness Properties of Medial Axis and Skeleton,” ASME J. Dyn. Control Syst., 10(2), pp. 149–170. [CrossRef]
Tilove, R. B. , 1980, “Set Membership Classification: A Unified Approach to Geometric Intersection Problems,” IEEE Trans. Comput., 29(10), pp. 874–883. [CrossRef]
Behandish, M. , and Ilieş, H. T. , 2014, “Shape Complementarity Analysis for Objects of Arbitrary Shape,” University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, Report No. CDL-TR-14-01.
Lieutier, A. , 2004, “Any Open Bounded Subset of rn Has the Same Homotopy Type as Its Medial Axis,” Comput. Aided Des., 36(11), pp. 1029–1046. [CrossRef]
Attali, D. , Boissonnat, J. D. , and Edelsbrunner, H. , 2009, “Stability and Computation of Medial Axes: A State-of-the-Art Report,” Mathematical Foundations of Scientific Visualization, Computer Graphics, and Massive Data Exploration, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 109–125.
Schöberl, J. , 1997, “NETGEN: An Advancing Front 2D/3D-Mesh Generator Based on Abstract Rules,” Comput. Visualization Sci., 1(1), pp. 41–52. [CrossRef]
Hoff, K. E., III , Culver, T. , Keyser, J. , Lin, M. , and Manocha, D. , 1999, “Fast Computation of Generalized Voronoi Diagrams Using Graphics Hardware,” 26th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '99), pp. 277–286.
Klein, F. , 2009, “A New Approach to Point Membership Classification in B-Rep Solids,” Mathematics of Surfaces XIII, Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 235–250.
Behandish, M. , and Ilieş, H. T. , 2015, “Haptic Assembly Using Skeletal Densities and Fourier Transforms,” 2015 ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE’2015), Boston, MA.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Assembly features captured by skeletal branches ((a) and (b)), which replace the virtual fixtures for assembly (c). The implicit skeletal density distribution ((d) and (e)) provides a robust substitute to facilitate measuring the overlap (f).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The affinity computation is decomposed into two steps: a projection in Eq. (1) that characterizes the distance distribution as observed from the query point, followed by applying the kernel in Eq. (2).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Possible spatial relations and the corresponding interactions. The generic virtual fixtures practically restrict the DOF if the stiffness properties (i.e., second-order partial derivatives of EG at the energy well) are large enough.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Three peg-in-hole assemblies (a), their SDFs (imaginary-parts) ((b) and (c)), and their spatial overlap (real-part) (d)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The shape complementarity score variations versus biaxial relative translation of the peg with respect to the hole

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The geometric energy variations versus uniaxial relative translation and rotation of the peg with respect to the hole

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Haptic force feedback versus time, for collision test (a)–(c) and snap test (d)–(f) for peg-in-hole examples in Fig. 4

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In