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Research Papers

Experimental Study of an Airplane Accident Evacuation/Rescue Simulation Using Three-Dimensional Kinematic Digital Human Models

[+] Author and Article Information
Takao Kakizaki

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Nihon University,
Nakagawara 1, Tokusada, Tamura,
Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8642, Japan
e-mail: kakizaki@mech.ce.nihon-u.ac.jp

Mitsuru Endo

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Nihon University,
Nakagawara 1, Tokusada, Tamura,
Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8642, Japan
e-mail: m_endo@mech.ce.nihon-u.ac.jp

Jiro Urii

CAS Research,
44-4-105 Shimo,
Fussa City, Tokyo 197-0023, Japan
e-mail: Jiro.URII@cas.fussa.tokyo.jp

Contributed by the Computers and Information Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received November 6, 2014; final manuscript received December 9, 2014; published online April 9, 2015. Editor: Bahram Ravani.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 15(3), 031006 (Sep 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: JCISE-14-1362; doi: 10.1115/1.4029563 History: Received November 06, 2014; Revised December 09, 2014; Online April 09, 2015

The 3D mass evacuation simulation of an airplane accident is experimentally verified. Evacuee motion has been experimentally investigated by building a test field that emulates the interior of an actual regional airliner with a capacity of approximately 100 passengers. The experiment results indicate that the evacuation time tends to be affected by the number of passengers and the evacuee guidance at the emergency exit. The results also indicate that any evacuation delay in exiting by individual passengers only slightly affects the total evacuation time because of evacuee congestion in the aisles. Moreover, the importance of evacuation guidance notification was investigated based on the evacuation-order variance. Finally, the experimental results were compared to the corresponding simulation results. Simulations using appropriate evacuee walking speeds can provide valid evacuation times, which are the most important factor in designing evacuation drills. Consequently, these results should be applied to existing 3D simulations using precise kinematic digital human (KDH) models for more accurate mass evacuation/rescue simulations.

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References

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Miura, R., Kaneko, Y., and Abe, Y., 2007, “Event Simulation of Stairs Walk in Evacuation,” IEEE Japan Conference, p. 318.
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Urii, J., and Kakizaki, T., 2010, “A 3-Dimensional Accurate Simulation Method for Mass Evacuation Using Precise Human Joint Model. (Application to a Mass Evacuation Drill by High-School Students),” Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., 76(769), pp. 2176–2185.
Kakizaki, T., Urii, J., and Endo, T., 2012, “A Three-Dimensional Evacuation Simulation Using Digital Human Models With Precise Kinematic Joints,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 12(3), pp. 93–102. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Evacuation drill for an airplane accident in Japan. (reprinted with permission from the KitaNippon Shimbun).

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Fig. 2

KDH model and its joint arrangements

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Fig. 3

Joint coordinate frames in the KDH model

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Fig. 4

KDH model of two stretcher-bearers

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Fig. 5

Carrying a stretcher down a stairway

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Fig. 6

Case of four stretcher-bearers

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Fig. 7

3D model of the entire airport

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Fig. 8

3D model of an airliner and its coordinate frame

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Fig. 9

Models of emergency vehicles

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Fig. 10

Emergency vehicle deployment path

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Fig. 11

Typical scene of passenger evacuation (98 s after start)

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Fig. 12

Typical scene of evacuation/rescue operation (95 s after start)

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Fig. 13

(a) A photograph of the interior of a CRJ regional jet airliner (manufactured by Bombardier), (b) experimental mockup of an airliner interior

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Fig. 14

Experiment field setup on campus

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Fig. 15

Measured evacuation times for each experiment

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Fig. 16

Evacuation times for different numbers of passengers

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Fig. 17

Evacuation times for self-evacuation and evacuation with guidance

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Fig. 18

Number of passengers Ne (measuring evacuation-order deviation frequencies) for case 3

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Fig. 19

Comparison of the evacuation of passengers from predetermined seat positions to the actual evacuation order for case 3

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Fig. 20

Number of passengers Ne (measuring escape order deviation frequencies) for case 6

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Fig. 21

Comparison of the evacuation of passengers from predetermined seat positions to the actual evacuation order for case 6

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Fig. 22

Experimental results and corresponding simulation results (a) 0 s, (b) 5 s, (c) 30 s, (d) 60 s, (e) 90 s, and (f) completed

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Fig. 23

Photograph of an evacuation drill being conducted (180 s after start)

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Fig. 24

Simulation of the evacuation shown in Fig. 23 (180 s after start)

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