Research Papers

Reverse Engineering Using Close Range Photogrammetry for Additive Manufactured Reproduction of Egyptian Artifacts and Other Objets d'art2

[+] Author and Article Information
John Kaufman

Engineering Department,
Lancaster University,
Lancashire LA1 4YW, UK
e-mail: johnkfm@gmail.com

Morag Clement

Kendal Museum,
Station Road,
Kendal, Cumbria LA9 6BT, UK
e-mail: morag.clement@kendal.ac.uk

Allan EW Rennie

Engineering Department,
Lancaster University,
Lancashire LA1 4YW, UK
e-mail: a.rennie@lancaster.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

2Accepted and presented at ASME 2014 12th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis (ESDA1014-20304), Copenhagen, Denmark, June 25-27, 2014.

Contributed by the Computers and Information Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 18, 2014; final manuscript received October 25, 2014; published online January 12, 2015. Editor: Bahram Ravani.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 15(1), 011006 (Mar 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: JCISE-14-1238; doi: 10.1115/1.4028960 History: Received July 18, 2014; Revised October 25, 2014; Online January 12, 2015

Photogrammetry has been in use for over 150 years. This research considers how digital image capture using a medium range Nikon digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera, can be transformed into 3D virtual spatial images, and together with additive manufacturing (AM) technology, geometric representations of the original artifact can be fabricated. The research has focused on the use of photogrammetry as opposed to laser scanning (LS), investigating the shift from LS use to a single DSLR camera exclusively. The basic photogrammetry equipment required is discussed, with the main objective being simplicity of execution for eventual realization of physical products. As the processing power of computers has increased and become widely available, at affordable prices, software programs have improved, so it is now possible to digitally combine multiview photographs, taken from 360 deg, into 3D virtual representational images. This has now led to the possibility of 3D images being created without LS intervention. Two methods of digital data capture are employed and discussed, in acquiring up to 150 digital data images, taken from different angles using a single DSLR camera together with the specific operating conditions in which to photograph the objects. Two case studies are documented, the first a modern clay sculpture, while the second, involves two 3000 year old Egyptian clay artifacts. All and the objects were recreated using AM technology. It has been shown that with the use of a standard DSLR camera and computer software, 2D images can be converted into 3D virtual video replicas as well as solid, geometric representation of the originals.

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Fig. 3

Textured resolution

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Fig. 4

Point cloud data image

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Fig. 5

Multicamera positions around clay head

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Fig. 6

Indoor open room setup

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Fig. 7

Light tent setup in Museum workshop

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Fig. 8

Processes digital image ready to be cleaned

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Fig. 9

Digital process using 123D Catch® from image capture to AM geometric representation

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Fig. 19

Wire mesh to be cleaned

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Fig. 20

Wire mesh to be cleaned

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Fig. 14

Point cloud textured digital image

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Fig. 13

Original clay head

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Fig. 12

Typical data flaws

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Fig. 11

Dark (green) background has been masked out of image

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Fig. 10

Alternative method of data capture using light tent and PhotoScan Pro®




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