0
Research Papers

Post-Tsunami Evacuation Simulation Using 3D Kinematic Digital Human Models and Experimental Verification

[+] Author and Article Information
Takao Kakizaki

Professor
Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
College of Engineering, Nihon University,
Nakagawara, Tokusada,
Tamura-machi, Koriyama,
Fukushima 963-8642, Japan
e-mail: kakizaki@mech.ce.nihon-u.ac.jp

Jiro Urii

President
CAS Research Inc.
44-4-105, Fussa,
Tokyo 197-0023, Japan
e-mail: Jiro.URII@cas.fussa.tokyo.jp

Mitsuru Endo

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
College of Engineering, Nihon University,
Nakagawara, Tokusada,
Tamura-machi, Koriyama,
Fukushima 963-8642, Japan
e-mail: m_endo@mech.ce.nihon-u.ac.jp

Contributed by the Computers and Information Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 29, 2013; final manuscript received January 2, 2014; published online April 3, 2014. Editor: Bahram Ravani.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 14(2), 021010 (Apr 03, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: JCISE-13-1297; doi: 10.1115/1.4026896 History: Received December 29, 2013; Revised January 02, 2014

A post-tsunami evacuation simulation using 3D kinematic digital human models (KDHs) and its experimental verification are addressed in the present study. Methods for carrying or assisting (transporting) injured people were experimentally investigated and the results were used for KDH data calibration to increase the accuracy of the simulations. It was found that, on flat ground, both the transit speed and the amount of time spent on intermittent rests were strongly affected by the load on the transporters. During ascent of stairways, the transit speed depended on the type of carry method being used and decreased in the order saddleback carry, two-person arm carry and slightly injured walking. Several KDH evacuee motion primitives were developed for stairway ascent to a tsunami evacuation tower. The simulation results show that the evacuation time was affected by the number of evacuees and the congestion due to the transportation of injured people. The developed simulation techniques can be effectively utilized in the planning of tsunami tower evacuation and predicting related crowd behavior.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Map of 3–11 tsunami height at local tide gauge station (FY2011 White Paper on Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (in Japanese))

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Tsunami evacuation tower in Fuji City, Japan

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Representative transportation methods

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Transit speed and time for two-person carry methods

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Transit speed and time for single-person carry methods

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Representative transportation methods on stairway

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Stairway location map for experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Schematic model of stairway in experiment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Transit speed and stairway evacuation time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Transit speed and stairway incline angle (ascending)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

KDH models for flat ground evacuation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Schematic of KDH evacuee and 3D stairway model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

(a) Example of 16 evacuees ascending stairway (Evacuation start). (b) Example of 16 evacuees ascending stairway (25 s later). (c) Example of 16 evacuees ascending stairway (45 s later). (d) Example of 16 evacuees ascending stairway (75 s later).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Example of saddleback carry

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

(a) Example of saddleback carry with 8 followers (Evacuation start). (b) Example of saddleback carry with 8 followers (40 s later). (c) Example of saddleback carry with 8 followers (56 s later). (d) Example of saddleback carry with 8 followers (65 s later).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

KDH model and its joint arrangements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Joint coordinate frames in the KDH model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Photograph of drill being conducted (180 s from start)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Simulated image of evacuees (180 s from start)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Simulated images of tsunami striking town

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In