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Research Papers

A Three-Dimensional Evacuation Simulation Using Digital Human Models With Precise Kinematic Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
Takao Kakizaki

Department of Mechanical Engineering,College of Engineering,  Nihon University, 1Nakagawara, Tokusada, Tamura-machi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8642, Japankakizaki@mech.ce.nihon-u.ac.jp

Jiro Urii

CAS Research Inc., 44-4-105, Fussa, Tokyo 197-0023, JapanJiro.URII@cas.fussa.tokyo.jp

Mitsuru Endo

Department of Mechanical Engineering,College of Engineering,  Nihon University, 1Nakagawara, Tokusada, Tamura-machi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8642, Japanm_endo@mech.ce.nihon-u.ac.jp

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 12(3), 031001 (Jun 08, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006737 History: Received November 05, 2011; Revised March 01, 2012; Published June 07, 2012; Online June 08, 2012

Disaster drills are important for minimizing the damage caused by earthquakes, floods, and fires. Therefore, mass-evacuation drills are considered to be an important obligation of schools and workplaces that employ several individuals. Moreover, for the validation of drill effectiveness as well as disaster prevention, the significance of mass-evacuation simulation has increased.In the present paper, a three-dimensional mass-evacuation simulation is first explained. The developed multi-agent-based simulation with a detailed three-dimensional building infrastructure uses a kinematic digital human (KDH) model with precise human joints. Simulation of a mass-evacuation drill by high-school students agrees well with the results of actual drills. In addition, considering the transportation of badly injured persons during disasters, digital human motion sets of patients, and transporters have been developed for critical evacuation simulation. Several examples have revealed the possibility of applying the extended simulation to evacuation from houses and hospitals.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Overview of the 3D high-school facilities model

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Figure 2

Overview of the inner facility model and evacuation routes

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Figure 3

Overview of the first building inner facility model

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Figure 4

Room 404 in Building-1 with evacuees

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Figure 5

Occupation-inspection space moving with evacuee

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Figure 6

Multi-agent system for evacuation simulation

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Figure 7

KDH model and its joint arrangements

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Figure 8

Joint coordinate frames of the KDH model

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Figure 9

Stairway walking posture of the KDH model

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Figure 10

Possible routes and evacuee behaviors (case 3)

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Figure 11

Photograph of a drill being conducted (120 s)

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Figure 12

Photograph of a drill being conducted (180 s)

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Figure 13

Simulation image of the playground (120 s)

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Figure 14

Simulation image of the playground (180 s)

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Figure 15

Model of KDH stretcher carrying

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Figure 16

Stretcher carrying on a stairway

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Figure 17

Wheelchair carrying on a stairway

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Figure 18

Another transportation example (a)

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Figure 19

Another transportation example (b)

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Figure 20

Trajectory generation process for straight walking

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Figure 21

Human model verification with actual human motion

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Figure 22

Human model verification by running motion

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Figure 23

KDH walking motion examples for adult and aged persons

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