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Research Papers

Comparison of Algorithms for Haptic Interaction With Isosurfaces Extracted From Volumetric Datasets

[+] Author and Article Information
Silvio H. Rizzi, Cristian J. Luciano

2039 Engineering Research  Facility, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607srizzi2@uic.edu

P. Pat Banerjee1

2039 Engineering Research  Facility, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607srizzi2@uic.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 12(2), 021004 (Mar 19, 2012) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006465 History: Received April 28, 2011; Revised March 01, 2012; Online March 19, 2012; Published April 23, 2012

Combinations of graphics and haptics libraries are used in medical simulations for simultaneous visualization and tactile interaction with complex 3D anatomy models. The minimum frame rate of 1 kHz for haptics rendering makes it a nontrivial problem when dealing with complex and highly detailed polygonal models. Multiple haptics algorithms based on polygonal mesh rendering, volume haptics, and intermediate representation are evaluated in terms of their servoloop rendering time, client thread rendering time, and quality of force feedback. Algorithms include OpenHaptics’ Feedback Buffer and Depth Buffer, GodObject and Ruspini renderers in h 3d , chai 3d implementation in h 3d , ScalarSurfaceFriction mode in Volume Haptics ToolKit (vhtk ), and the authors’ intermediate representation algorithm based on volumetric data. The latter, in combination with surface graphics visualization, is found to deliver the best rendering time, to detect all collisions and to provide correct haptic feedback where other algorithms fail.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Predefined trajectory for the experiments. The red sphere is animated and moves following a straight-line trajectory on the 3D surface from the green sphere (starting point) to the blue (end point) at constant velocity.

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Figure 2

Servoloop average rendering time for polygonal mesh methods

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Figure 3

Servoloop frame rendering time for volumetric methods

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Figure 4

Force anomalies in chai 3d for 265K visualized polygons

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Figure 5

Force anomalies in GodObject for 159K visualized polygons

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Figure 6

Force anomalies in Feedback Buffer for 53K visualized polygons

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Figure 7

Force anomalies in vhtk for 238K visualized polygons

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Figure 8

Average force anomaly coefficient for all cases and its range of variation

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Figure 9

Haptics rendering time in client thread

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Figure 10

Combined haptics and graphics rendering time in client thread

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Figure 11

Original mesh—265,348 polygons

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Figure 12

50% decimated mesh—132,674 polygons

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Figure 13

90% decimated mesh—26,534 polygons

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