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Research Papers

Efficient NC Simulation for Multi-Axis Solid Machining With a Universal APT Cutter

[+] Author and Article Information
Hong-Tzong Yau1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Cha-Yi, 621, Taiwan, ROCimehty@ccu.edu.tw

Lee-Sen Tsou

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Cha-Yi, 621, Taiwan, ROClstsou@cad.me.ccu.edu.tw

1

Corresponding author.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 9(2), 021001 (May 19, 2009) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3130231 History: Received September 15, 2006; Revised September 16, 2008; Published May 19, 2009

In multi-axis machining of dies and molds with complex sculptured surfaces, numerical control (NC) simulation/verification is a must for the avoidance of expensive rework and material waste. Despite the fact that NC simulation has been extensively used by industries for many years, efficient, accurate, and reliable view-independent simulation of multi-axis NC machining still remains a difficult challenge. This paper presents the use of adaptive voxel data structure in conjunction with the modeling of a universal cutter for the development of an efficient and reliable multi-axis (typically five-axis) simulation procedure. The octree-based voxel representation of the workpiece saves a significant amount of memory space without sacrificing the simulation accuracy. Rendering of the voxel-based model is view independent and does not suffer from any aliasing effect, due to the real-time triangulation of the boundary surfaces using an extended marching cube algorithm. Implicit algebraic equations are used to model the automatically programed tool geometry, which can represent a universal cutter with high precision. In addition, the proposed method allows users to perform error analysis and gouging detection by comparing the machined surfaces with the original computer-aided design (CAD) model. Illustration of the implementation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is reliable, accurate, and highly efficient.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Octree data structure and the associated voxel model

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Figure 2

The implicit function is used to determine the interior or exterior of a cutter

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Figure 3

Geometric definition of the APT cutter

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Figure 4

Special cases of the APT cutter: (a) flat endmill, (b) fillet endmill, (c) ball endmill (d) taper endmill, and (e)taper fillet endmill

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Figure 5

Flowchart of multi-axis machining simulation

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Figure 6

Revolved surface of an APT cutter

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Figure 7

Computing the height v in the torus region

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Figure 8

Simulating a G01 code from CL point (0, 0, 0) to CL point (40, 30, 20) by using 4×2×2 voxel grids

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Figure 9

Triangular meshes extracts from a workpiece model by using the marching cubes algorithm

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Figure 10

Surface octant types: (a) corner octant, (b) edge octant, and (c) face octant

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Figure 11

Triangular meshes extracted from a workpiece model by using the surface table method

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Figure 12

Computing cutter motion

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Figure 13

Calculating the voxel size from a user-defined tolerance

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Figure 14

Flow chart of material removal process

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Figure 15

Subdividing the surface octant

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Figure 16

Adaptive Boolean subtraction

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Figure 17

A crack in surface octants

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Figure 18

Stitch crack region in a facet of surface octant

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Figure 19

Stitching the crack regions

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Figure 20

Evaluating the machining error

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Figure 21

Blade (a) tool paths, (b) in-process workpiece with a ball endmill, (c) finished part (triangular mesh),(d) finished part (voxel representation)

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