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Research Papers

Directional Force Sensation by Asymmetric Oscillation From a Double-Layer Slider-Crank Mechanism

[+] Author and Article Information
Tomohiro Amemiya1

NTT Communication Science Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-0198 Japant-amemiya@avg.brl.ntt.co.jp

Taro Maeda

Graduate School of Information Science and Technology,Osaka University

1

Corresponding author.

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 9(1), 011001 (Feb 09, 2009) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3072900 History: Received August 31, 2007; Revised July 15, 2008; Published February 09, 2009

By subjecting a small object in a handheld device to periodic translational motion with asymmetric acceleration (accelerated more rapidly in one direction than in the other), the holder typically experiences the kinesthetic illusion of being pushed or pulled continuously by the held device. We have been investigating the effect because of its potential application to a handheld, nongrounded, haptic device that can convey a sense of a continuous translational force in one direction. A one-degree-of-freedom haptic device based on a double-layer slider-crank mechanism was constructed based on the results of our previous research. Our results with the new haptic device show that (i) humans perceive directed force sensation by asymmetric oscillation, (ii) 5 counts/s is the best frequency to generate the force sensation, (iii) the ratio of the gross weight of the device and the weight of the reciprocating mass should be at least 16% for effective force perception, and (iv) the force perception is the same with the device held in either hand.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Photograph and mechanism of the force display. The slider-crank mechanism outputs translational motion with asymmetric acceleration from a single-speed rotation input.

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Figure 2

Structure of the new force display. The force display has a double-layer arrangement that cancels the side-to-side force generated by linkage motion. The motor pinion engages two opposing crown gears. The crown gears work as cranks in the mechanism.

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Figure 3

Illustration of the body posture in experiment 1. The direction from the elbow to the wrist is forward, and the opposite is backward.

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Figure 4

Actual acceleration value of the apparatus for the test experiment (solid line) versus the calculated value (dotted line)

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Figure 5

Actual acceleration value of the apparatus for the control experiment (solid line) versus the calculated value (dotted line)

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Figure 6

Actual torque of the dual-layer prototype around x, y, and z axes over time when driven at 5 counts/s. The data were filtered with a seventh-order Butterworth low-pass filter (LPF) (50 Hz cutoff and 1 kHz sampling). The weight is 20 g. A mirror-symmetry pair of mechanisms counteracted the effect of the motion of linkages, i.e., torque along the z-axis. Torque along the y-axis is generated by moving the weight back and forth on the x-axis. The offset of the two layers produces torque in the x-axis, but it is smaller than that in the earlier prototype.

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Figure 7

Simulation of the change in the resultant force vector in the horizontal plane (upper left) and the measured value with a seventh-order Butterworth LPF (50 Hz cutoff and 1 kHz sampling) (upper right). Mechanical schematic of apparatus (lower). The weight is 20 g and the frequency is 5 counts/s. The acceleration is limited to only the x-axis.

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Figure 8

Actual torque of the dual dual-layer prototype around x, y, and z axes over time when driven at 5 counts/s. The conditions and situation are the same as described in the caption of Fig. 6.

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Figure 9

Simulation of the change in the resultant force vector in the horizontal plane (upper left) and the measured value with a seventh-order Butterworth LPF (50 Hz cutoff and 1 kHz sampling) (upper right). Mechanical schematic of the apparatus (lower). The weight is 20 g and the frequency is 5 counts/s. The acceleration is limited to only the x-axis.

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Figure 10

Perceptual effect of acceleration profile. Average percentage-correct scores versus rotational frequencies of the motor. Each point is the percent-correct score averaged over the six subjects (100 trials per subject). The error bars show ±1S.E.

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Figure 11

Measured acceleration of earlier prototype and proposed prototype. The actual acceleration of the apparatus in the experiment is the blue solid line. The calculated one is the black dotted line. The amplitude of acceleration of the earlier prototype reached 43% of the theoretical acceleration peak, but that of the proposed one reached 85%.

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Figure 12

Photo of the box of experiment 2. A case made of ABS was attached for additional weight.

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Figure 13

Perceptual effect of gross weight of the device (columns) and the weight of the reciprocating mass in the device (rows). In columns (rows) of the graphs, the gross weight of the device (the weight of the reciprocating mass) is identical. Each point is the percent-correct score averaged over the three subjects (100 trials per subject). The error bars show ±1S.E. The m and M represent the weight of the reciprocating mass and the gross weight of the device.

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Figure 14

Perceptual effect of the ratio of the weight of the reciprocating mass and the gross weight of the device

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Figure 15

Percentage-correct scores versus rotational frequencies of the motor for the dual-layer prototype when held by a nondominant hand. Average percentage-correct scores versus rotational frequencies of the motor. Each point is the percent-correct score averaged over the four subjects (100 trials per subject). The error bars show ±1S.E.

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