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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Computational Metrology for the Design and Manufacture of Product Geometry: A Classification and Synthesis

[+] Author and Article Information
Vijay Srinivasan

 IBM Corporation and Columbia University, New York, NY and  University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NCvasan@us.ibm.com

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 7(1), 3-9 (May 26, 2006) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2424246 History: Revised May 26, 2006; Received October 06, 2006

The increasing use of advanced measurement tools and technology in industry over the past 30 years has ushered in a new set of challenging computational problems. These problems can be broadly classified as fitting and filtering of discrete geometric data collected by measurements made on manufactured products. Collectively, they define the field of computational metrology for the design specification, production, and verification of product geometry. The fitting problems can be posed and solved as optimization problems; they involve both continuous and combinatorial optimization problems. The filtering problems can be unified under convolution problems, which include convolutions of functions as well as convolutions of sets. This paper presents the status of research and standardization efforts in computational metrology, with an emphasis on its classification and synthesis.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 2

ISO definition of flatness tolerance (8). (a) The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart. (b) The extracted (actual) surface shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.08 units apart. No datum is needed. All dimensions are in millimeters.

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Figure 3

A comprehensive list of geometric tolerances defined by ISO (8)

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Figure 4

ISO definition of parallelism tolerance (8). (a) The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and parallel to the datum plane. (b) The extracted (actual) surface shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.01 units apart which are parallel to datum plane D. Clearly, a datum is needed here. All dimensions are in millimeters.

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Figure 5

Example of dimensioning and tolerancing an industrial part in a three-dimensional geometric model. (Courtesy Dassault Systemes.) All dimensions are in millimeters.

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Figure 1

Example of an industrial drawing with dimensioning and tolerancing annotations on projected views of a part. (courtesy Archie Anderson.) All dimensions are in millimeters.

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Figure 6

Example of standardized indications of dimensioning and tolerancing an industrial part in a three-dimensional geometric model. All dimensions are in millimeters.

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Figure 7

Output of the Gaussian filter superposed on an unfiltered input profile

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Figure 8

Output of a morphological operation (erosion) shown as a lower curve. The input is the upper curve. The lower curve is the mechanical surface corresponding to a 50μm radius disk, shown in three distinct places.

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Figure 9

Output of an envelope filter, implemented as a morphological filter called closing filter, is shown as the upper curve. The input to the filter is the lower curve.

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