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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Process-Planning for Layered Manufacturing of Heterogeneous Objects Using Direct Metal Deposition

[+] Author and Article Information
Ki-Hoon Shin

Digital Storage Research Center, Daewoo Electronics Corporation, 543 Dangjeung-Dong, Kunpo City, Gyonggi-Do 435-733 Koreae-mail: shinkh@web.dwe.co.kr

Debasish Dutta

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125e-mail: dutta@umich.edu

J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng 2(4), 330-344 (Mar 26, 2003) (15 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1559152 History: Received September 01, 2001; Revised December 01, 2002; Online March 26, 2003
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Mazumder,  J., Choi,  J., Nagarathnam,  K., Koch,  J., and Hetzner,  D., 1997, “The Direct Metal Deposition of H13 Tool Steel for 3-D Components,” The Member Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 49(5), pp. 55–60.
Mazumder, J., Koch, J., Nagarathnam, K., and Choi, J., 1996, “Rapid Manufacturing by Laser Aided Direct Deposition of Metals,” preprint, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Fessler, J., Nickel, A., Link, G., Prinz, F., and Fussell, P., 1997, “Functional Gradient Metallic Prototypes Through Shape Deposition Manufacturing,” 8th Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, pp. 521–528.
Merz, R., Prinz, F. B., Ramaswami, K., Terk, M., and Weiss, L., 1994, “Shape Deposition Manufacturing,” 4th Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, pp. 1–8.
Griffith, M., Harwell, L., Romero, J., Schlienger, E., Atwood, C., and Smugeresky J., 1997, “Multi-Material Processing by LENS,” 8th Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, pp. 387–394.
Lewis, G., and Nemee, R., 1997, “Properties of Near-Net Shape Metallic Components Made by the Directed Light Fabrication Process,” 8th Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, pp. 513–520.
Sachs, E., Haggerty, J., Cima, M., and Williams, P., 1993, “Three-Dimensional Printing Techniques,” U.S. Patent No. 5,204,055.
Marsan, A., and Dutta, D., 1997, “A Survey of Process Planning Techniques for Layered Manufacturing,” Proceedings of the 1997 ASME Design Technical Conference, Sacremento, CA.
Kumar, V., Kulkarni, P., and Dutta, D., 1998, “Adaptive Slicing of Heterogeneous Solid Models for Layered Manufacturing,” Proceedings of the 1998 ASME Design Technical Conference.
Wu, H., Sachs, E., Patrikalakis, N., Brancazio, D., Serdy, J., Jackson, T. R., Cho, W., Liu, H., Cima, M., and Resnick, R., 2000, “Distributed Design and Fabrication of Parts With Local Composition Control,” Proceedings of the 2000 NSF Design and Manufacturing Grantees Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Park, S. M., Crawford, R. H., and Beaman, J. J., 2000, “Functionally Gradient Material Representation by Volumetric Multi-Texturing for Solid Freeform Fabrication,” 11th Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, Aug. 7–9.
Bhashyam,  S., Shin,  K. H., and Dutta,  D., 2000, “An Integrated CAD System for Design of Heterogeneous Objects,” Rapid Prototyping Journal, 6(2), pp. 119–135.
Shin,  K. H., and Dutta,  D., 2001, “Constructive Representation of Heterogeneous Objects,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 1, pp. 205–217.
Sachs,  E. M., Wylonis,  E., Allen,  S., Cima,  M. J., and Guo,  H., 2000, “Production of Injection Molding Tooling With Conformal Cooling Channels Using the Three Dimensional Printing Process,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 40(5), pp. 1232–1247.
Jackson T. R., 2000, “Analysis of Functionally Graded Material Representation Methods,” Ph.D. thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
Kwon, P. Y., 1994, “Macroscopic Design and Fabrication of Functionally Gradient Materials,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Suresh,  S., and Mortensen,  A., 1997, “Functionally Graded Metals and Metal-Ceramic Composites: Thermomechanical Behavior,” Int. Mater. Rev., 42(3), pp. 85–116.
Donomoto, T., Miura, N., Funatani, K., and Miyake, N., 1983, SAE Tech. Paper No. 83052, Detroit, MI.
Kulkarni,  P., and Dutta,  D., 1996, “An Accurate Slicing Procedure for Layered Manufacturing,” Comput. Aided Des., 28(9), pp. 683–697.
Allen,  S., and Dutta,  D., 1995, “Determination and Evaluation of Support Structures in Layered Manufacturing,” Journal of Design and Manufacturing, 5, pp. 153–162.
Shin, K. H., Natu, H., Dutta, D., and Mazumder, J., 2002, “A Method for the Design and Fabrication of Heterogeneous Objects,” Mater. Des., accepted for publication.

Figures

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A heterogeneous modeling space for cylindrical material coordinates
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An example of material space transform
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Two different discretizations of a material composition function
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Discretization by Boolean intersections and differences
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Discretization of Fig. 4(a, b)
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Discretized cooling channel with three different material composition functions
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Model construction and discretization of a nonleaf heterogeneous object
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Details of discretization of Fig. 11(a)
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An example of VFL (n=4,r=0.2)
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Hierarchical discretization of the pressure vessel
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Model construction and discretization on a piston head
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Orientation of a simple FGM part
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Computation of the layer thickness (d)
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Process planning for the piston head
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An FGM example fabricated by DMD (Cu–Ni)
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Process planning for layered manufacturing of heterogeneous objects
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Schematic of the laser deposition using DMD
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Boolean construction between two heterogeneous primitives
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Examples of heterogeneous objects

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